The energy transition—the movement away from carbon-based energy and toward low- and zero-carbon energy—varies substantially among municipalities, states, and countries. Indeed, the use or production of carbon-intensive fuels is still increasing in some areas. While some regions are experiencing major employment and community-based transitions as coal mines and coal-fired power plants are phased out, others—such as those that rely primarily on imported fuels—face different challenges, such as energy security. This page provides case studies and vignettes from countries, U.S. states, and local governments around the world to paint a more complete picture of the global energy transition and its many place-based differences.  These vignettes focus primarily on efforts to support workers and stimulate new economic development in regions experiencing closures of fossil fuel mining or power plants.

United States

Colorado, U.S.A.

Routt County, Colorado

Much of Colorado’s economy depends on fossil fuel development, with the state ranking 8th in natural gas production in 2021.[1]Colorado State Energy Profile, U.S. Energy Information Administration, https://www.eia.gov/state/print.php?sid=CO (Last Updated: May 18, 2023. In Routt County, coal power plants represented about 2% of the direct jobs in the county, totaling 330 direct jobs, and a much larger percentage of school funding.[2]Jennifer Baka, Seth Blumsack, Caden Vitti, and Hannah Wiseman, , “The Local Social and Economic Context of Energy Transitions”, Center for Energy Law and Policy, 10 (Apr. 8, 2022), … Continue reading

The Colorado Just Transition Advisory Committee has drafted proposals on how to transition Colorado coal workers once plants close by 2030. One recommended program is ensuring that each coal worker “has equal access to adequate case management, planning and mentoring assistance to develop and implement an individual transition plan designed to help the worker achieve his or her financial, career and/or retirement goals while maintaining or achieving economic self-sufficiency.”[3]Colorado Just Transition Advisory Committee, Draft Colorado Just Transition Plan, p.20, available at … Continue reading Another is to use federal Trade Adjustment Assistance dollars to provide job training and education benefits for renewable energy technology.[4]Id. at 22 A third recommendation is to provide temporary income and benefit assistance for 3-5 years for workers who intend to remain in the workforce while they search for new employment.[5]Id. at 24.

The Colorado Department of Labor and Employment’s final Just Transition Action Plan similarly identifies ways to support both workers and communities losing fossil fuel-based jobs and revenue.[6]Colorado Dept. of Labor and Employment, Colorado Just Transition Action Plan 1 (2020),https://cdle.colorado.gov/sites/cdle/files/documents/Colorado%20Just%20Transition%20Action%20Plan.pdf Among other strategies, the plan aims to better coordinate infrastructure planning to support transitions; identify and support institutions at all levels, from the local to the state level, to “facilitate needed investments”; “[p]repare, for future consideration, a detailed state program to help displaced workers build skills, find good jobs or start businesses”; and “[e]ncourage the federal government to lead with a national strategy for energy transition workers.”[7]Id. at 1-2.

New Mexico, U.S.A.

San Juan County, New Mexico

Historically, coal has not been a fixture of New Mexico’s economy. But for counties such as San Juan, coal mining is a part of the culture and slowed the transition away from coal after New Mexico enacted its Energy Transition Act.[8]Jonathan Thompson, In San Juan Basin, cultural, economic bonds slow fossil fuel transition, Energy New Network (June 30, 2022), … Continue reading San Juan was home to two active mining plants including the San Juan Generating Station which employed 100 workers until the plant shut down its final operating unit in September 2022.[9]Hannah Grover, As the last coal burned, San Juan Generating Station employees expressed a mixture of emotions, The NM Political Report (Sept. 29, 2022), … Continue reading All of the employees were laid off.[10]Susan Bryan, US shift away from coal hits home in San Juan County, Farmington Daily Times (Oct. 2, 2022), … Continue reading Local nonprofit organizations have led the charge in aiding San Juan County after the plant’s closure. For example, the San Juan Citizens Alliance has proposed multiple solutions including siting renewable energy in-county, providing funding to retrain plant workers, and full transparency as the closure affects a large population of Navajo people.[11]See San Juan Citizens Alliance, https://www.sanjuancitizens.org/energy-transition (last visited Nov. 3, 2022).

Wyoming, U.S.A.

Sheridan, Wyoming

Sheridan, Wyoming has been a coal mining city for over 130 years.[12]Jennifer Baka, et. al., The Local Social and Economic Context of Energy Transitions (2022), 9, available at … Continue reading Sheridan has two active mines with one in bankruptcy, and these mines are against a backdrop of steadily declining coal jobs across the state–a 28.7% decline from 2019-2021.[13]Id. As jobs and tax revenue from the mines decrease, Sheridan has attempted to expand its economy outside of coal.[14]Id. This includes expanding its existing professional services and manufacturing firms.[15]Id. In that sense, WY Ranch, an industry hub based in Sheridan, is specifically looking to expand opportunities in the aerospace, nanotechnology, and composites industries by connecting potential industrial partners with “right-fit projects and people,” promoting Wyoming companies and talent, diversifying businesses and entire sectors, and encouraging, and encouraging sustainable business development with “[f]orward-thinking growth and management.”[16]WY RANCH website, About the Ranch, available at https://www.wyranch.org/the-ranch (last visited Dec. 08, 2023) As of April 2020, at least one advanced materials business had relocated to Sheridan, and in 2021, Falcon Car Corporation announced that it would build an electric vehicle production facility in Sheridan.[17]Staff Reports, Falcon Car Corporation moving to Sheridan, the Sheridan Press (2021), … Continue reading

Americas

Argentina

RenovAr, renewable energy auction initiative

Argentina aspires to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050, yet a comprehensive strategy for realizing this objective remains undisclosed. The country’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) progress includes the submission of its second NDC to the UNFCCC in December 2020, outlining its alignment with the Paris Agreement.[18]Treasury department, Argentinian government, Update of the net emissions goal to 2030 of the Argentina’s Second NDC (2021), available at … Continue reading A revised edition of the NDC in November 2021 solidified Argentina’s commitment to capping net emissions at 349 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MtCO2e) by 2030. [19]Id. While no formal plan for phasing out fossil fuel-powered plants is in place, Argentina did enact a renewable energy law in 2015, conducting renewable energy auctions since then to achieve a targeted 20% share of renewables in the national electricity consumption by 2025.[20]Act 27191 Legal Regulations on National Promotion for the Use of Sources of Renewable Energy, Congress Argentina (2015) (enacted) … Continue reading Notwithstanding economic challenges, electricity tariffs maintained stability from 2018 to 2020 before experiencing a more than 20% increase in 2021 due to economic conditions.

Within the framework of its renewable energy auction initiative, RenovAr, Argentina has upheld 20-year Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) denominated in US dollars across four auctions. Notably, there are no constraints on the duration of bilateral PPAs between corporations and clean energy producers. Highlighting progress, Argentina accomplished a significant feat in 2020, connecting 1.4 gigawatts (GW) of wind and solar capacity to the grid, adding to the country’s total installed electricity generation capacity, which has surpassed 40,000 MW.[21]International Energy Agency, Argentina Renewable Energy Auctions – RenovAr Program (Round 1) https://www.iea.org/policies/6130-argentina-renewable-energy-auctions-renovar-program-round-1 (last … Continue reading)

Brazil

The movement away from carbon-based energy and toward low- and zero-carbon energy in Brazil has a fast-paced, policy-based approach where research and development are prioritized.[22]World Bank, The World Bank in Brazil: Overview (2023) , available https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/brazil/overview (last visited Nov. 27, 2023)

Brazil committed to cut greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to 53% by 2030, compared to 2005. [23]Jake Spring, Brazil to revise climate targets to cut emissions 53% by 2030 -sources (2023), Thomson Reuters, available … Continue reading)   Similarly, the goal of achieving net-zero carbon emissions by 2050 is aligned with a prior tentative target date of 2060 for this net-zero emission objective. [24]Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope: Brazil (2022), availble at https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/br/. Haga clic o pulse si confía en este vínculo." href="https://nam10.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.global-climatescope.org%2Fmarkets%2Fbr%2F&data=05%7C01%7Cjjo5503%40psu.edu%7C0b15fa010f72413554f308dbe9ef2b91%7C7cf48d453ddb4389a9c1c115526eb52e%7C0%7C0%7C638360985659060617%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000%7C%7C%7C&sdata=RIJVTq6Tc7ohr5DZcIrbF%2B4s%2FzcJql6sYPW7eFYjje4%3D&reserved=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" data-auth="NotApplicable" data-linkindex="7" data-loopstyle="linkonly">https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/br/ (last visited Nov. 27, 2023)  Current efforts in Brazil are focused on Energy Efficiency Programs, partnerships and Collaborations with international organizations, governments, and private sectors to share knowledge, best practices, and resources for achieving carbon neutrality and sustainability. [25]International Energy Agency, E4 Country Profile: Energy Efficiency in Brazil (2021), available at https://www.iea.org/articles/e4-country-profile-energy-efficiency-in-brazil (last visited Nov. … Continue reading)

Brazil predominantly secures its clean energy capacity through auctions featuring standardized Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs). [26]Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope: Brazil (2022), availble at https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/br/. Haga clic o pulse si confía en este vínculo." href="https://nam10.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.global-climatescope.org%2Fmarkets%2Fbr%2F&data=05%7C01%7Cjjo5503%40psu.edu%7C0b15fa010f72413554f308dbe9ef2b91%7C7cf48d453ddb4389a9c1c115526eb52e%7C0%7C0%7C638360985659060617%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000%7C%7C%7C&sdata=RIJVTq6Tc7ohr5DZcIrbF%2B4s%2FzcJql6sYPW7eFYjje4%3D&reserved=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" data-auth="NotApplicable" data-linkindex="9" data-loopstyle="linkonly">https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/br/ (last visited Nov. 27, 2023) Brazil conducts frequent capacity auctions to maintain grid reliability, with well-defined rules and processes for project interconnection, along with regularly updated and published grid expansion plans. [27]Id. The definition of net metering regulation and its reform initiatives have incorporated significant input from both the industry and the public. [28]Id.

Chile

Chile´s Nationally Determined Contributions

Chile’s energy policy has recently undergone significant changes in response to domestic and international shifts. This evolution has involved substantial reforms in institutions, policies, and major infrastructure projects. The enactment of the Paris Agreement has notably influenced investor perceptions of government commitments to address climate change, underscoring ambitious goals, the importance of climate finance, and improved transparency in target setting and actions.[29]Treasury Department of Chilean Government, Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of Chile Towards The Climate Agreement of Paris 2015, p5 (2015), available at … Continue reading Notably, Nationally Determined Contributions (Hereinafter NDCs) serve as essential guides that point out the areas where public and private sectors can invest in economic development that is both sustainable and inclusive.[30]Treasury Department of Chilean Government, Nationally Determined Contribution Update 2020 (2020), 24,  available at https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/NDC/2022-06/Chile%27s_NDC_2020_english.pdf Published openly by the UN for global review, these NDCs and accompanying Climate and Energy Action Plans necessitate governments to uphold ambitious, transparent, and comprehensive strategies supported by clear objectives and effective policy tools.[31]Id. at 39

Chile is committed to achieving carbon neutrality by 2050 as outlined in its updated NDC, a strategic framework aligned with the goals of the Paris Agreement.[32]Id. at 13 Presented to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in April 2020, Chile’s revised NDC seeks to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to a maximum of 1,100 million metric tons of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) from 2020 to 2030, with an expected emissions peak around 2025.[33]Id. at 12 By 2030, the aim is to bring emissions down to 95 MtCO2e.[34]Press Release, Treasury Department, Chilean Government, Which are Chile’s NDC goals? When is Carbon Neutrality projected? (2020), available at … Continue reading In tandem with this commitment, Chile is actively pursuing a phased approach to move away from fossil fuels, intending to retire 65% of coal power plants by 2025 and completely phase out coal-based power by 2040.[35]Press Release, Chilean Government, Chile announces that it will work to put an end to coal use by 2030 after joining the Powering Past Coal Alliance (2021), available at … Continue reading In addition to its other initiatives, Chile set a goal in its energy policy to produce 20% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2025.[36]Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope 2022: Chile, available at https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/cl/ (last visited Nov. 21, 2023) It surpassed this target by reaching 25% in 2020.[37]Id. In 2021, wind and solar power together accounted for 18% of the total power generation.[38]Id.

Colombia

The movement away from carbon-based energy and toward low- and zero-carbon energy in Colombia is driven by a community-based approach based on both education and support from the Renewable Energy Integration Program.[39]Climate Investment Fund, “Renewable Energy Integration, Shift to Zero Carbon”, https://www.cif.org/topics/renewable-energy-integration

The board of the Climate Investment Funds (CIF) approved Colombia’s Investment Plan to implement its Renewable Energy Integration Program (REI Program) with a package of up to US$70 million[40]Maria A, Planas, Juan Cárdenas., Colombia launches the Renewable Energy Integration Program of the Climate Investment Funds in Latin America, Inter-American Development Bank (Mar. 2, 2023), … Continue reading. The Ministry of Mines and Energy prepared the plan for the Colombian government, and it will be supported by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), or in Spanish, Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID).[41]See Id.

Much of Colombia’s current efforts are directed to support people that did not have access to fossil fuel energy in the past, prioritizing providing them with renewable energy to stimulate new economic development.[42]See Id.  Colombia has also developed encouraging technological educational programs that can prepare potential workers for this new way of making energy.[43]See Id.

Dominican Republic

The Dominican Republic currently lacks a net-zero goal and a comprehensive long-term strategy for low-carbon efforts. In its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC), the country initially committed to a 25% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 2010 levels, with a later revision aiming for a 27% reduction by 2030. [44]Bloomberg NEF, Climate Scope 2022 Dominican Republic, https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/do/ (last visited Nov. 16, 2023Perhaps because of the absence of a formal fossil fuel phase-out policy, the government is planning to develop up to 800 megawatts of natural gas-fired power plants.[45]Id.

Regarding its power sector, the Dominican Republic aims for 25% renewable energy in total power generation by 2025, but achieved only 9% in 2022.[46]Id. The current administration revised this target to 30% non-conventional renewable generation (including wind, solar, and biomass) by 2030.[47]Id. As of December 2021, these sources contributed around 9% of the country’s total annual power consumption. The nation operates a net metering program, allowing solar-equipped retail customers to receive credits for excess energy sent back to the grid. By December 2021, the program had 8,435 participants with 209.5 megawatts installed, compared to 5,047 users and 135.49 megawatts in January 2020.[48]Bloomberg NEF, supra note.1 The Dominican Republic incentivizes renewable energy through tax breaks and priority dispatch, exempting machinery and equipment from import tax and value-added tax (VAT).[49]PWC, Worldwide Tax Summaries: Dominican Republic, https://taxsummaries.pwc.com/dominican-republic/corporate/tax-credits-and-incentives (last visited Aug.07, 2023)

El Salvador

El Salvador has not established a net-zero emissions target. Nonetheless, in May 2022, the country collaborated with the European Union under the El Salvador-EUROCLIMA Action Plan with the aim of crafting a strategy for a sustainable, low-emission future.[50]Climate Scope, El Salvaor, Bloomberg NEF,https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/sv/

The EUROCLIMA El Salvador Action Plan will have an investment of 1.1 million euros[51]Euroclima, “El Salvador and the European Union present their climate change action plan”, … Continue reading, and it will be the guide that will develop 4 major national actions in the climate field during the time period of 2022-2023[52]See Id.:

The first one is a formulation of a Long Term Resilient and Low Emission Development Strategy; the second one consists of support to formulate a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA); the third one refers to the strengthening of the regulatory framework for the implementation of the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) and finally, the Development of regionalized climate scenarios.[53]Press and information team of the EU Delegation in El Salvador,“The European Union and El Salvador present their action plan against climate change”, European Union External Action, … Continue reading)

Guatemala

In July 2022, Guatemala unveiled a long-term low-carbon strategy but has yet to establish a net-zero emissions target.[54]Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope Guatemala (2022), https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/gt/ (last visited Nov. 20, 2023 In the same year, the country updated its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) as part of its commitment to the Paris Agreement, aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 11.2% by 2030 compared to 2005 levels. [55]United Nations Development Programme, Climate promise – Guatemala (2023), https://climatepromise.undp.org/what-we-do/where-we-work/guatemala (last visited Nov. 13, 2023)

With the potential for additional financial and technical support from international sources, both public and private, Guatemala suggests that it could achieve a more substantial 22.6% reduction in emissions by 2030.[56]Bloomberg NEF, supra note 1 The sectors targeted for mitigation efforts include Land Use, Land Use Change, and Forestry (LULUCF), agriculture, energy, and waste.[57]Id.

Currently, the Law of Incentives for Advancing Renewable Energy Projects streamlines the import and acquisition of energy generation equipment employing renewable technologies and offers tax exemptions to new projects.[58]International trade Organization, Guatemala Renewable energy (2022) https://www.trade.gov/market-intelligence/guatemala-renewable-energy (last visited Nov. 13, 2023) Nevertheless, despite the ample supply of renewable energy, there are rural regions without electricity access or those who still prefer using sources like firewood, resulting in a low energy utilization rate.[59]Id.

Panama

The movement away from carbon-based energy and toward low- and zero-carbon energy in Panamá has a communication strategic transition approach based on the N.°MIPRE-2023-0021773 Resolution. [60]Condensed consolidated interim financial statements, Enel Colombia S.A. E.S.P. and Subsidiaries, p.40, (Jun.30,2023) https://www.enel.com.co/content/dam/enel … Continue reading

Panama submitted a non-binding plan to help achieve the goals set out in the 2015 Paris Agreement called Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) that aims to lower carbon dioxide emissions from its energy sector by at least 11.5% between 2022 and 2030, and by at least 24% between 2022 and 2050. [61]Climate Scope, Panama,BloombergNEF,https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/pa/

Current mitigation efforts include reforestation plans, Strategic Guidelines of the 2020-2030 Energy Transition Agenda and the reinforcement of its 2016 NDC target for 15% of energy generation to come from renewables by 2030.[62]Id.

Peru

While Peru joined the global methane pledge in 2010, it lacks a net-zero emissions goal and a comprehensive carbon strategy. In its updated Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) submitted to the UNFCCC in December 2020, Peru targets a 30% emissions reduction against a business-as-usual scenario by 2030. With international support, it aims for a 40% reduction.[63]CAT Climate Target Update Tracker, Climate Action Tracker, last updated Dec.18, 2020, available at https://climateactiontracker.org/climate-target-update-tracker/peru/ The goal covers all sectors and includes absolute targets of 208.8 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent by 2030 in the business-as-usual case and 179 million metric tons by 2030 in the event of international support.[64]Peruvian Government, Nationally Determined Contributions Updated Report 2021-2030 (2020), available at … Continue reading

The Legislative Decree 1002 on investment promotion for generation of electricity using renewable energy of Peru established the promotion of renewable energies as a national priority with a specific objective to meet: in the first five years the Renewable Energy Resources (hereinafter RERs) had to generate at least 5% of the electricity consumed in Peru.[65]International Energy Agency Website, Last updated: 29 March 2017, … Continue reading In accordance with article 2.2 of the regulation, after this period, the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) “will establish a (new) objective percentage of the participation – in national electricity consumption – of the electricity generated from the RER.”[66]Id. Concerning the on-grid RER auctions, a total of 64 projects were granted in four auctions that took place in 2009, 2011, 2013, and 2015.[67]Humberto Campodónico & César Carrera, Energy transition and renewable energies: Challenges for Peru, 171 Energy Policy 113261, 113264(2022), available at … Continue reading The cumulative power generated by these RER plants amounts to 1,274 MW, and the collective investment in these projects is reported to be US$ 1.957 billion, as per the Supervisory Agency for Investment in Energy and Mining (In Spanish, OSINERGMIN -Organismo Supervisor de la Inversión en Energía y Minería)  data.[68]Id. Notably, small hydroelectric plants secured 50% of the awards, making them the most awarded, followed by wind energy at 30%.[69]Id. Solar energy claimed the third position with a 16% share, while biomass projects occupied the last place with 3%.[70]Id.

Uruguay

Uruguay is dedicated to attaining carbon neutrality by 2050 and has put forth a comprehensive strategy for this purpose in December 2021. In their Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) submitted in November 2017, Uruguay has set a target to lower greenhouse gas emissions intensity by 24% by 2025.[71]Uruguay Government, Nationally Determined Contributions (2017), 3-7, available at https://www.ccacoalition.org/sites/default/files/resources//2017_First-NDC_Uruguay%28ES%29.pdf With regards to fossil fuels, Uruguay is gradually phasing out more expensive and environmentally unfriendly oil-fired power plants, leaving only two operational.[72]Uruguay Government, Nationally Determined Contributions (2022), 3, available at https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/NDC/2022-12/Uruguay%20Segunda%20CDN.pdf Despite ongoing discussions about retiring these plants, there isn’t a specific policy in place yet to achieve this objective.[73]Id.

Uruguay’s installed capacity reached nearly 5,000 MW by 2020. [74]Bloomberg NEF, Climate Scope 2022 Uruguay, https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/uy/ (last visited Nov. 17, 2023Uruguay boasts the highest non-hydro clean energy penetration in Latin America, with wind and solar meeting 36% of power demand in 2021.[75]International Energy Agency, Uruguay https://www.iea.org/countries/uruguay (last visited Aug. 09, 2023) The National Energy Plan exceeded targets by achieving 857 MW of wind and 425 MW of biomass by 2015.[76]International Renewable Energy Agency, Renewable Energy Policy Brief, Uruguay (2015), available at … Continue reading) However, clean energy progress slowed post-2015. The low-income tariff, offering a 35% discount for up to 230 kilowatt-hours of monthly consumption, saw the subsidy discontinued for new users in 2022 as part of a revised subsidy strategy aimed at lower-socioeconomic status households.[77]Bloomberg NEF, supra note 4 The new Hydrogen Roadmap, initiated in 2022, aims to achieve 2 to 4 GW of renewables by 2030.[78]Industry, Energy & Mines Department, Uruguay Department, Green Hydrogen Roadmap in Uruguay (2022), 38, available at … Continue reading The state-owned utility UTE, though integrating independent producers through auctions, experienced a demand decline of 3.5% from 2016-2017.[79]See Supra note 49

Europe

European Union

Europe’s energy policy is shaped by energy security and EU climate targets from the ‘Fit For 55’ package. These include reducing greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030 and reaching net zero emissions by 2050.[80]European Council, European Union, European Green Deal- Fit for 55 information (2023), available at https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/policies/green-deal/fit-for-55-the-eu-plan-for-a-green-transition/ Current 2030 targets involve a 32% share of renewables in energy consumption, a 32.5% improvement in energy efficiency, and 15% electricity system interconnection.[81]European Parliament, European Union, Fact Sheets on the European Union: Energy policy (2023), available at … Continue reading

New proposed 2030 EU targets, agreed in March 2023, aim for a 42.5% renewable energy share and an 11.7% reduction in primary and final energy consumption compared to 2020 projections, equivalent to 40.5% and 38% less than 2007 projections.[82]European Parliament, European Union, Fact Sheets on the European Union: Energy Efficiency (2023), available at … Continue reading The existing European energy policy, established in 2015 with the Energy Union strategy, seeks to provide secure, sustainable, competitive, and affordable energy. In addition, EU Member States must create 10-year integrated national energy and climate plans, submit progress reports every two years, and develop long-term strategies that align with energy targets and the Paris Agreement.[83]European Commision, European Union, National long-term strategies (2020), available at … Continue reading This strategy propels Europe towards a greener, more resilient energy future. Several treaties and regulations lay out the framework for the EU’s energy policy; those documents are summarized briefly in the tables below.

Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) Content
TFEU Article 194[84]Official Jorunal of the European Union, Consolidated Version of the Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union, Art.194. Available at … Continue reading) This article outlines that energy responsibility is a joint effort between EU Member States and the EU. Nonetheless, each Member State retains the prerogative to determine the conditions for harnessing its energy resources, make choices regarding diverse energy sources, and shape the overarching structure of its energy supply. The primary objectives of EU energy policy encompass (a) guaranteeing the proper operation of the energy market; (b) ensuring the security of energy supply; (c) advocating for energy efficiency, conservation, and the advancement of innovative and sustainable energy forms; (d) supporting the integration of energy networks.
TFEU Article 122 (Security of Supply)[85]Official Jorunal of the European Union, Consolidated Version of the Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union, Art.122. Available at … Continue reading) In the energy area, if a Member State faces difficulties or is at risk due to natural disasters or exceptional circumstances beyond its control, the Council, upon the Commission’s recommendation and subject to specific conditions, may provide Union financial support to that Member State. The President of the Council is responsible for notifying the European Parliament of this decision.
TFEU Articles 170-172 (Energy Network)[86]Official Jorunal of the European Union, Consolidated Version of the Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union, Art.170-172. Available at … Continue reading Within the context of the energy market, these articles emphasize the Union’s commitment to supporting the establishment and growth of trans-European networks through (a) the promotion of the interconnection and compatibility of national energy networks within an open and competitive market framework with special attention to disadvantaged regions, such as islands, landlocked areas, and peripheral regions; (b) the development of guidelines, technical standardization, and potential financial support for projects of common interest, all while considering the economic viability of these projects; (c) the coordination with Member States or third countries of their national policies to advance mutually beneficial projects and network interoperability; (d) the participation of the European Parliament and the Council, following the ordinary legislative procedure and consultations with relevant committees in the adoption of guidelines and measures.
TFEU Article 114 (Internal energy market)[87]Official Jorunal of the European Union, Consolidated Version of the Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union, Art.114. Available at … Continue reading This passage outlines the procedures for harmonizing laws and regulations within the European Union’s internal energy market. The European Parliament and the Council are responsible for adopting measures to align Member States’ energy-related provisions with the internal market’s operation, prioritizing a high level of protection in areas such as environmental and consumer protection. Member States can notify the Commission if they wish to maintain or introduce national energy provisions based on major needs or new scientific evidence. The Commission can propose adaptations or additional measures when necessary, and specific public health issues related to energy can be brought to its attention. In cases of improper use of these powers by a Member State, the Commission or a Member State can directly involve the Court of Justice of the European Union. Additionally, harmonization measures related to energy may include safeguard clauses allowing provisional measures for non-economic reasons, subject to Union control procedures.
TFEU Article 216-218 (External Energy Policy)[88]Official Jorunal of the European Union, Consolidated Version of the Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union, Art.216-218. Available at … Continue reading These provisions establish the procedures for the European Union (EU) to engage in agreements related to energy with third countries or international organizations. These agreements must align with the EU’s energy objectives and policies and are legally binding on both EU institutions and member states. The negotiation process involves the Council authorizing negotiations and the Commission or the High Representative for Foreign Affairs making recommendations. The role of the European Parliament varies depending on the specific agreement, which may involve consent or consultation. The European Parliament is consistently informed throughout the process, and parties can seek the Court of Justice’s opinion if they believe an energy-related agreement contradicts EU treaties, potentially necessitating amendments or treaty revisions before implementation
TFEU Protocol 37 (Coal)[89]Official Jorunal of the European Union, Consolidated Version of the Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union, Prot. 37. Available at … Continue reading This protocol deals with the management of assets and revenue aimed at research within the coal and steel industry, with a direct impact on energy-related sectors. It designates the net worth of these assets for research purposes during the liquidation phase, later referred to as the ‘Research Fund for Coal and Steel.’ Revenue generated from these assets is exclusively reserved for research in energy-related domains within the coal and steel industry, outside the standard research framework program, following prescribed guidelines. The legislative process for implementation involves the Council adopting necessary provisions and principles through a special procedure, with consent from the European Parliament. Additionally, the Council collaborates with the Commission and the European Parliament to establish financial and technical guidelines for asset management and the energy research program.
Euratom Treaty (Nuclear Energy) The Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community serves as the legal basis for most EU actions in the field of nuclear energy.
Nationally Determined Contribution of the European Union Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) outline the actions that individual countries take to lower their domestic emissions and prepare for the effects of climate change. These contributions represent a crucial component of the commitments that Parties must meet as per the Paris Agreement. In the case of the European Union, a single NDC is submitted on behalf of both the EU as a whole and its individual member states.
General policy framework Content
Governance and electricity interconnectivity ( Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 ) The Regulation’s primary goal is to establish a consistent and well-coordinated implementation of the EU’s Energy Union Strategy, covering various aspects such as energy security, the internal energy market, energy efficiency, decarbonization, and advancements in research, innovation, and competitiveness. Its key focus is to ensure the successful attainment of the Energy Union’s overarching objectives, particularly the targets outlined in the 2030 policy framework for climate and energy and the commitments made under the Paris Agreement concerning climate change.
Electricity market design ( Directive (EU) 2019/944 and Regulation (EU) 2019/943 ) This directive and regulation sets forth uniform regulations governing the production, transmission, distribution, storage, and provision of electricity, along with consumer safeguard measures, aimed at fostering fully integrated, competitive, customer-centric, adaptable, equitable, and transparent electricity markets within the Union.
Risk-preparedness ( Regulation (EU) 2019/941 ) This regulation outlines the obligations imposed on every European Union member country to establish uniform plans aimed at preventing, getting ready for, and effectively handling situations that could lead to disruptions in electricity provision to consumers.
Energy efficiency ( Directive (EU) 2018/2002) This directive sets a headline energy efficiency goal for the European Union in 2030, aiming for at least a 32.5% improvement compared to projected energy use in that year, with a provision that allows for potential upward adjustments by 2023. Each EU member state is obligated to create a 10-year integrated national energy and climate plan (NECP) for the period from 2021 to 2030, outlining their strategies for contributing to the 2030 energy targets.
Energy performance of buildings ( Directive (EU) 2018/844 ) This comprehensive initiative encompasses a wide array of policies and support mechanisms aimed at assisting EU member states in enhancing the energy efficiency of buildings and upgrading their current building inventory. For instance, EU nations are required to develop robust, long-term renovation strategies with the goal of achieving carbon neutrality in their national building stocks by 2050. These strategies should also include specific milestones for 2030, 2040, and 2050 to track progress toward this objective.
Renewable energy ( Directive (EU) 2018/2001 ) It introduced a new obligatory renewable energy objective for the EU in 2030, set at a minimum of 32%, and allowed for a potential upward adjustment by 2023. This new target builds upon the prior goal of 20% set for 2020.
Gas market design ( Directive 2009/73/EC and Regulation (EC) No 715/2009 ) This initiative facilitates the reduction of carbon emissions in the gas consumption sector and presents necessary policy actions to support the development of specialized and efficient infrastructure, as well as well-functioning markets. It aims to eliminate obstacles to decarbonization, fostering an environment conducive to a more economically efficient transition.
Taxation of energy products ( Directive 2003/96/EC) This directive is the framework for the taxation of various energy products, encompassing electricity, motor fuels, and many heating fuels. Alongside outlining regulations to prevent potential imbalances in competition within the EU, this directive defines minimum excise duty rates aimed at promoting an economy that is both low in carbon emissions and energy-efficient. Within the confines of the framework, member states have the flexibility to formulate their own tax policies and can determine domestic tax rates as long as they adhere to the minimum rates.
Trans-European energy infrastructures ( Regulation (EU) 2022/869 ) This policy aims to create a more integrated internal energy market by connecting energy infrastructures within Member States and with third countries. The policy, initially established in 2013, identified priority corridors for electricity, gas, and oil infrastructure to enhance cross-border connections and promote the integration of renewable energy. Member States selected and implemented Projects of Common Interest (PCIs) within these corridors, eligible for EU budget funding and expedited permitting. The revised TEN-E Regulation in 2022 continues this mission, emphasizing improved connected energy networks while aligning with the latest environmental objectives and the EU Green Deal’s climate neutrality targets.
Cooperation of energy regulators ( Regulation (EU) 2019/942 ), and changes after the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU ( Decision (EU) 2019/504 ) It establishes the foundation for the creation and operation of the EU Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER). ACER is a specialized EU agency designed to oversee regulatory matters within the EU energy market. Its primary function is to harmonize the decisions made by independent national regulators. The legal framework currently in place is rooted in Regulation (EC) No 713/2009, which originally established this agency.
EU ‘Fit For 55’ package Content
The Renewable Energy Directive (COM/2021/557) The proposal´s goals of the renewable energy directive revision are to boost the utilization of renewable energy sources by 2030, promote more effective integration into the energy system, and play a role in addressing climate and environmental challenges, including safeguarding biodiversity. By doing so, this revision aims to tackle the long-term issues associated with global warming and biodiversity decline. It is crucial for achieving higher climate targets, safeguarding our environment and well-being, reducing our reliance on energy imports, and playing a part in the EU’s technological and industrial leadership.
The Energy Efficiency Directive (COM/2021/558) The proposal is intended to enhance the Energy Efficiency Directive, making it more effective in overcoming existing obstacles and addressing market failures. These amendments align with the broader goals of the European Green Deal, which seeks to create an inclusive and sustainable economy. Consequently, the proposal seeks to reinforce various aspects of this directive to ensure it plays a significant role in achieving the ambitious climate target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030, as outlined in the Climate Target Plan.
The Energy Taxation Directive (COM/2021/563) This proposal involves transitioning from volume-based to energy content-based taxation, removing incentives that encourage the use of fossil fuels, and implementing a tiered system of tax rates based on environmental performance. Furthermore, the existing tax framework will be streamlined by categorizing energy products (used for transportation or heating) and electricity and ranking them based on their environmental impact.
The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (COM/2021/802) The primary aims of this revision center on two key aspects: first, the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the lowering of final energy consumption in buildings by the year 2030, and second, the establishment of a long-term vision for buildings that aligns with the goal of EU-wide climate neutrality by 2050. To achieve these goals, the initiative is built upon several specific objectives like increasing both the pace and depth of renovations in the building sector, enhancing the availability of information related to the energy performance and sustainability of buildings, and ensuring that all buildings meet the climate neutrality requirements set for 2050
The Gas Directive (COM/2021/803) and Regulation (COM/2021/804).

The objective of this initiative is to promote the integration of renewable and low-carbon gases into the energy system, with the aim of transitioning away from natural gas and facilitating the essential role of these new gases in achieving the EU’s climate neutrality goal by 2050. Within this framework, it tackles several key areas, including enhancing customer engagement and protection in the green gas retail market, addressing issues related to hydrogen infrastructure and markets, promoting the integration of renewable and low-carbon gases into existing gas infrastructure and markets, and ensuring energy security, particularly in terms of supply and storage.

Austria

In December 2019, Austria unveiled a long-term climate strategy committed to achieving carbon neutrality by 2050, prioritizing solutions other than nuclear power. Their strategy emphasizes the future viability of carbon capture and storage technologies. Austria, as a member of the European Union, aligns with the EU’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to fulfill the goals of the Paris Agreement. The EU, in December 2020, submitted an updated NDC to the United Nations, and Austria increased its carbon reduction target to 55% compared to 1990 levels, up from the previous 40%, as part of the EU’s Green Deal initiative.[90]European Commision on behalf the European Union and its members,European Union, Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of the European Union Towards The Climate Agreement of Paris 2015. (2020), … Continue reading

Austria made significant strides in phasing out coal in 2020 but faced a reversal in 2022 due to a gas supply shortage from Russia. The nation also set ambitious targets for phasing out fossil-fuel heating, starting with bans on oil heaters in new constructions and plans to prohibit gas heaters in new buildings by 2023. Additionally, Austria aims to eliminate oil and gas-fired boilers in all buildings by 2035 and completely phase out oil-fired heating systems by 2050, with an interim milestone in 2030 when oil and gas heating installations in new buildings will be prohibited.[91]International Energy Agency,  Austria 2020 Energy Policy Review (2020), available at … Continue reading

Austria is on a promising path to exceed its renewable energy targets for 2030, aiming for renewables to cover 34% of total energy needs and 100% of electricity demand. They also plan to install one million rooftop solar photovoltaic systems by 2030 through their “#mission2030” initiatives. Support for renewables includes feed-in tariffs and upfront grants, especially for small hydro and solar projects. However, the government has introduced a new energy law transitioning to a premium-based auction system, effective in the latter half of 2022, to further promote renewables.[92]Federal Ministry for Sustainability and Tourism, Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology, Austrian Climate and Energy Strategy # Mission 2030 (2018), available at … Continue reading

Programs

The government programme for 2020-24

The government’s program in Austria builds upon the #mission2030 and the National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP) but sets a more ambitious target of achieving climate neutrality by 2040 while maintaining economic competitiveness and affordable energy. Key objectives include enacting a new climate protection law with binding greenhouse gas reduction targets, revising and solidifying the NECP, phasing out gas, oil, and coal heating systems, injecting green gas into the grid, and significantly increasing renewable electricity production. The government also aims to install one million roof-mounted PV systems by 2030 and improve energy efficiency laws.

Furthermore, the government plans to develop a mobility masterplan for 2030 to align with Paris climate goals and enhance public transport infrastructure. They are committed to a tax reform based on ecological and social principles, striving for true-cost pricing for CO2 emissions in sectors not covered by the EU Emission Trading System. To address fuel tourism and its contribution to emissions, measures such as increased transit fees for heavy-duty vehicles and promoting rail transportation will be implemented, all while ensuring compliance with EU regulations.[93]REPUBLIK ÖSTERREICH, Aus Verantwortung für Österreich. Regierungsprogramm 2020–2024 (2020), available at https://www.dievolkspartei.at/Download/Regierungsprogramm_2020.pdf

The Flagship Region Energy 

The Flagship Region Energy initiative, introduced in 2018, centers on optimizing the interplay between energy generation, consumption, system management, and storage. It offers financial support for the real-time testing of comprehensive energy solutions. The primary objective of Flagship Regions Energy is to advance projects closer to the market, primarily through the establishment of innovation partnerships and the implementation of green financing initiatives in designated model regions. Austria has identified three regions for this purpose, each representing distinct thematic focuses for innovation.[94]Klima- und Energiefonds,  Flagship region Energy (2018), available at https://www.vorzeigeregion-energie.at/wp-content/uploads/Folder-Vorzeigeregion-EN-screen-RZ.pdf

In the first region, situated in the eastern part of Austria with the highest population density and a significant portion of variable renewable energy installations, green energy laboratories have been established. These laboratories serve as testbeds for evaluating smart grids and sector integration. A prominent research area within this region explores the optimal utilization of digitalization to deliver customer-centric energy solutions.

Legislative initiatives

National Energy and Climate Plan (ENCP)

The European Union mandates each of its member states to create a ten-year integrated document known as the National Energy and Climate Plan (ENCP). This plan is crucial for the EU to meet its overall greenhouse gas emissions targets. In the case of Austria, the ENCP focuses on enhancing the transportation sector, particularly in urban areas and along transit routes, which still require improvements. The decarbonization efforts encompass various objectives and measures, including[95]FEDERAL MINISTRY FOR SUSTAINABILITY AND TOURISM, Integrated National Energy and Climate Plan for Austria, available at … Continue reading:

  • Reducing greenhouse gas emissions (excluding Emission Trading System) by 36% compared to 2005 levels.
  • Strengthening and expanding public transportation.
  • Implementing mobility management strategies for businesses, municipalities, regions, and tourism.
  • Promoting electric mobility in private transportation.
  • Greening the standard fuel consumption tax and engine-related insurance tax.
  • Providing input tax deductions for electric bicycles and motorcycles.

Decarbonization initiatives extend to other sectors such as buildings, agriculture, forestry, waste management, fluorinated gases, and spatial planning. In the energy sector, the primary goal is to increase the share of renewable energy in the gross final energy consumption to 46-50% and source 100% of electricity consumption from renewables, while maintaining a national energy balance. Taxation, including tax advantages and exemptions, remains the primary instrument to achieve these objectives. Additionally, the plan aims to address aspects related to energy efficiency, the internal energy market, research and innovation, and monitoring and evaluation.

The Just Transition Strategy 

It comprises initiatives aimed at fostering employment opportunities within the context of the energy transition. These efforts are underpinned by a comprehensive framework that includes vocational training, proactive labor policies, support measures for vulnerable populations, and economic stimulus plans targeting regions most affected by the shift towards sustainable energy sources.[96]FEDERAL MINISTRY FOR TRANSPORT, INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY,Just Transition Aktionsplan Aus- und Weiterbildung (2023), available at … Continue reading

Austria’s LongTerm Strategy (LTS) 

In accordance with Regulation 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action, as well as Decision 1/CP.21 of the Paris Agreement, Austria has formulated its long-term plan for reducing greenhouse gas emissions while adhering to a strict non-nuclear energy policy. This plan is designed to ensure Austria achieves climate neutrality no later than 2050. It encompasses all key sectors, including energy, industry, transportation, construction, agriculture, and forestry. Furthermore, it emphasizes the potential for reducing emissions through changes in human lifestyles and consumption patterns, as well as the role of digitalization in contributing to this goal. Additionally, Austria’s government program for the years 2020-2024 commits the country to attaining climate neutrality by 2040, necessitating updates to the long-term strategy.[97]FEDERAL MINISTRY REPUBLIC OF AUSTRIA, SUSTAINABILITY AND TOURISM, Long-Term Strategy 2050 – Austria (2019), available at https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/resource/LTS1_Austria.pdf

Bulgaria

Bulgaria’s robust and diversified power sector boasts universal grid access and strong cross-border connections with neighboring countries. However, the energy and climate change sector faces significant challenges due to geopolitical, economic, and regulatory pressures, impacting its role as a driving force in the Bulgarian economy[98]International Trade Organization Website, Bulgaria – Country Commercial Guide, Energy,Last published date: Sep.11, 2022, https://www.trade.gov/country-commercial-guides/bulgaria-energy. As an EU member, Bulgaria aligns with the EU’s ambitious climate goals, including the aim to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050.[99]See Id.

Within the EU, Bulgaria collaborates on the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) submitted to the UNFCCC[100]European Commission on behalf the European Union and its members, Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of the European Union Towards The Climate Agreement of Paris 2015. (2020), available at … Continue reading. The EU’s initial NDC targeted a 40% reduction in emissions by 2030, relative to 1990 levels. [101]See Id. p.5In December 2020, the EU reinforced its commitment by setting a more ambitious goal of reducing emissions by 55% by 2030.[102]European Climate Foundation, EU leaders set more ambitious emissions reductions target for 2030 (Dec.1st, 2021), available at … Continue reading Notably, Bulgaria has transitioned from feed-in tariff contracts to feed-in premium contracts for most renewable energy producers.[103]U.S. Department of State, 2023 Investment Climate Statements: Bulgaria (2023), available at https://www.state.gov/reports/2023-investment-climate-statements/bulgaria/. These premium contracts, influenced by market prices, replaced traditional feed-in tariffs, with some exceptions for smaller renewable electricity producers and specific installations that continue to benefit from feed-in tariffs.[104]See Id. However, the renewable energy sector in Bulgaria experienced challenges, including zero premiums for some producers and market regulation moratorium in 2021, which influenced the transition towards market-driven pricing mechanisms.[105]Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope Bulgaria, available at https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/bg/

Programs

Under EU Directive 2009/28/EC, Bulgaria is obligated to create a 10-year National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP) in line with the EU’s transition goals. [106]The European Parliament and the Council of The European Union, Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 (2018), 5, available at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32018R1999&from=EN In their NECP, Bulgaria aims to increase renewable energy’s share in their final energy consumption  to 27% by 2030.[107]Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Bulgaria, Integrated Energy and Climate Plan of the Republic of Bulgaria 2021-2030. (2019), 58,  available at … Continue reading

Under the Directive 2012/27/EU , Bulgaria established ambitious renewable energy targets spanning heating, electricity, and transportation sectors for 2020.[108]Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Bulgaria, National Energy Efficiency Action 2014-2020 (2014), 7, 49-57, available at https://energy.ec.europa.eu/system/files/2014-12/NEEAPBulgaria_en_0.pdf Their primary objective is to reach a 16% share of energy from renewable sources in total energy consumption.[109]Angel Nikolaev et al., Development and assessment of renewable energy policy scenarios by 2030 for Bulgaria, Renewable Energy (2017), Pages 792-802, available at … Continue reading. To achieve this, Bulgaria implemented various strategies, including feed-in tariffs, mandatory grid connections for renewable energy plants, long-term power purchase agreements, and guarantees of origin.[110]Enerdata, Bulgaria – Institutions and Energy Policy – Renewables – FiTs (feed-in-tariffs), available at  … Continue reading) They also enforced compulsory biofuel blending, provided incentives like zero excise duty for pure biofuels, and initiated short and long-term programs to foster renewable energy growth.[111]Angel Nikolaev et al., supra note 4, at 794 Bulgaria’s dedication to these goals signifies a significant shift towards a cleaner, more sustainable energy future, reducing carbon emissions, enhancing energy security, and promoting innovation in renewable energy.[112]Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope Bulgaria (2022) , available at  https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/bg/

Legislative initiatives

Energy from Renewable Sources Act

In 2011, Bulgaria introduced the Energy from Renewable Sources Act, designed to regulate the production and utilization of renewable energy to meet the country’s targets for renewable energy use in its final gross energy consumption.[113]Republic of Bulgaria, Energy from Renewable Sources Act (2011), available at … Continue reading This act played a pivotal role in shaping the renewable energy landscape, setting the stage for sustainable energy development.[114]See Id.

Energy Act
Subsequently, in 2013, the Energy Act was implemented to govern various aspects of the energy sector, encompassing grid connections, electricity generation, transmission, pricing, and access for renewable energy sources. This legislation included provisions to support electricity from renewable sources, with the costs of feed-in tariff schemes being shouldered by electricity consumers.[115]Republic of Bulgaria, Energy Act (2013), available at https://www.minfin.bg/upload/39583/Energy_Act.pdf Notably, the act empowered the grid operator to decline the connection of a renewable energy facility if they could demonstrate insufficient grid capacity or a threat to the security of energy supply.[116]Id.
As part of ongoing energy sector reforms, Bulgaria’s Energy Commission proposed a new bill in 2020 to amend and supplement the Energy Act.[117]Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope Bulgaria (2022), available at  https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/bg/  This bill aligns with the broader objective of fully liberalizing the wholesale energy market and integrating the national market into the wider European energy landscape. Key provisions within the bill entail replacing cold reserve transactions with auctions and introducing feed-in premium agreements for renewable producers with an installed capacity ranging from 0.5MW to 1MW.[118]Kostadin Sirleshtov, Dimitar Zwiatkow and Borislava Piperkova,CMS Law Tax, Bulgaria, Renewable Energy Guide (2020), p. 35, available at … Continue reading However, as of now, the bill has not yet been enacted into law.[119]Gor Todorovic, Energy bill to liberalize wholesale power market introduce energy communities, Balkan Green Energy News (2023), available at … Continue reading

Croatia

Croatia’s National Energy Strategy 2009-2020 outlined three primary goals: enhancing energy supply security, fostering a competitive energy system, and promoting sustainable development in the energy sector. [120]International Energy Agency, Country Profile: Croatia (2023), available at https://www.iea.org/countries/croatia (last visited Nov. 27, 2023)  These objectives hold significant importance for Croatia due to its heavy reliance on energy imports, making it susceptible to fluctuations in energy prices. [121]Id. Croatia’s Low-Carbon Development Strategy, released in 2021, outlines strategies for reducing emissions from 1990 levels across three scenarios: maintaining existing practices, and gradually  transitioning gradually. [122]Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope Croatia (2022), available at https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/hr/ (last visited Nov. 27, 2023)

EU member states collectively presented a shared Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), delineating the bloc’s strategy to support the objectives of the Paris Agreement. [123]Id.  Initially pledging to decrease emissions by a minimum of 40% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels, the EU elevated its commitment in the revised NDC submitted in December 2020, aiming for at least a 55% reduction by 2030.[124]Id.

Programs

National Energy and Climate Plan 2021-2030

In pursuit of its objectives, Croatia established a 2030 National Energy and Climate Plan, envisioning a 36.4% contribution from renewable energy sources by 2030, substantial investments in various energy sectors such as hydropower, wind farms, solar photovoltaic plants, and hydrogen energy, and active support for electric battery production, along with the renovation and expansion of electricity networks. [125]European Investment Bank, Powering Croatia (2023), available at https://www.eib.org/en/stories/energy-croatia-greener-supply-zagreb (last visited Nov. 27, 2023)

Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund (EPEEF) 

The EPEEF serves as the focal hub for gathering and allocating supplementary financial resources for initiatives in environmental and nature protection, energy efficiency, and the utilization of renewable energy sources, while also overseeing the database for these projects and programs. [126]The Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund (EPEEF), Activities of the Fund (2023), available at https://www.fzoeu.hr/en/activities-of-the-fund/1325 (last visited Nov. 27, 2023)

Denmark

Denmark aims to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050, aligning with the European Union’s objective, and has set an interim target for 2030, aiming for a 70% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990 levels. [127]Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope Denmark (2022), available at https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/dk/ (last visited Nov. 24, 2023) As a member of the European Union, Denmark is committed to the joint Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) within the framework of the Paris Agreement, wherein its updated submission to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2020 outlines a target to achieve a 55% reduction in emissions by the end of 2030 compared to 1990 levels.[128]Id.

The nation is dedicated to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 70% from 1990 levels by 2030 and ensuring that renewables account for at least half of its overall energy consumption by the same year.[129]International Energy Agency, Denmark (2023), available at https://www.iea.org/countries/denmark (last visited Nov. 24, 2023) Denmark’s vision extends to achieving net-zero emissions by 2050, aligning with international climate goals, and phasing out coal-fired power by 2030.[130]Id. A noteworthy political agreement aspires to have renewables cover 100% of electricity and 55% of total consumption by 2030, with 90% of district heating derived from non-fossil sources.[131]Id.

Further demonstrating its commitment to sustainability, Denmark is striving to eliminate the sale of petrol and diesel cars by 2030.[132]Jonas Ekblom, Denmark calls for EU strategy to phase out diesel and petrol cars from 2030 (2019), Reuters, available at … Continue reading The country’s distinguished position, leveraging its consistent breezy climate, has successfully harnessed wind energy, currently surpassing other industrialized OECD countries by producing nearly double the per capita wind energy and making it a global leader in wind energy.[133]Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Green Thinking: Pioneers in clean energy, Denmark.dk, available at https://denmark.dk/innovation-and-design/clean-energy (last visited Nov. 24, 2023) Denmark’s strategic use of combined heat and power plants, paired with wind energy, offers substantial potential for efficiently combining heat and electricity systems.[134]International Energy Agency, Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Denmark 2017 Review (2017), available at https://www.iea.org/countries/denmark (last visited Nov. 24, 2023)

Finland

The movement away from carbon-based energy and toward low and zero-carbon energy in Finland revolves around achieving complete carbon neutrality by 2035.[135]International Energy Agency, Executive summary of Energy Policy Review Finland (2023), available at https://www.iea.org/reports/finland-2023/executive-summary (last visited Nov. 24, 2023) Accordingly in July 2022, Finland updated its Climate Change Act to legally commit to achieving that neutrality by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (excluding land use, land-use change, and forestry) by 60% by 2030, 80% by 2040, and 90-95% by 2050.[136]Id.

The National Climate and Energy Strategy (NCES) serves as the pivotal document outlining how Finland intends to achieve the European Union’s (EU) 2030 energy and climate targets and attain carbon neutrality by 2035[137]Id.. Finland has a low reliance on fossil fuels thanks to its nuclear reactors and significant domestic production of renewable energy, primarily from forestry biomass, hydro, and wind sources.[138]International Energy Agency, Finland’s nuclear and renewable power strengths provide a solid foundation for reaching its ambitious climate targets (2023), available at … Continue reading) In 2021, fossil fuels accounted for just 36% of Finland’s total energy supply (TES). [139]Id.

Finland lacks domestic fossil fuel production, importing all crude oil, natural gas, and coal.[140]Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Fossil Fuel Support Country Note (2020), 1, available at … Continue reading However, the country’s high energy intensity and per capita energy consumption stem from its sizable heavy industry sector and the substantial heating demand driven by its cold climate.[141]Id. Imported natural gas still exists withing Finland’s energy portfolio, but its consumption was halved due the cessation of Russian pipeline gas imports in May 2022. As a result, the share of renewable energy continued to grow, reaching 41.8 percent of total final energy consumption.[142]International Trade Administration, Finland, country commercial guide (2023), available at https://www.trade.gov/country-commercial-guides/finland-energy (last visited Nov. 24, 2023). Moreover, there has been a declining trend in carbon removal from land use, land-use change, and forestry since 2010, with the land-use sector becoming a net source of GHG emissions for the first time in 2021. [143]Saila Nieminen, et. al., Finland’s Energy Transition: IEA’s Perspective on the 2023 Policy Review (2023), Young leaders in Energy Sustainability (YES-Europe), available at … Continue reading

France

The energy transition strategy in France is based on a set of policies, laws and measures aimed at reducing dependence on fossil fuels, promoting renewable energy, improving energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.[144]International Energy Agency, France needs to invest more in energy efficiency, renewables and nuclear to put itself on track for net zero by 2050, IEA policy review says (2021), available at … Continue reading

However, currently France is falling short of its goals to increase the use of renewable energy sources in its energy mix.[145]International Energy Agency, France 2021: Executive Summary (2021), available at https://www.iea.org/reports/france-2021/executive-summary Currently, only 19.3% of the country’s final energy consumption comes from renewables, which is well below the European target of 23% by 2020.[146]France Nature Environmental, Renewable Energies Acceleration Act: what has been achieved? , available at https://fne.asso.fr/actualites/loi-d-acceleration-des-energies-renouvelables-quel-bilan (last … Continue reading) France is the only European Union member state that hasn’t met this objective. Consequently, it is in violation of European Union regulations, which could result in penalties of “nearly 500 million euros in 2022”, as stated by the Minister for Energy Transition.[147]Id.

France’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), aligned with the EU’s, initially sought a 40% emissions reduction by 2030 from 1990 levels, but in December 2020, the EU enhanced its target to a 55% reduction, echoing the ambitions of the Green Deal.[148]European Commission on behalf the European Union And Its Members, European Union, Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of the European Union Towards The Climate Agreement of Paris … Continue reading Meanwhile, France had a commitment to cease coal usage by 2022, yet the confluence of nuclear maintenance and the European energy crisis led to the reactivation of the Saint-Avold coal-fired power station.[149]Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope: France (2022), available at https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/fr/

Germany

Federal-State-Regional-Local Transition Approaches

Germany has long been considered the leader of the just energy transition due to its program to discontinue coal (and nuclear) energy, Energiewende. Germany’s policies to address the impacts of this shift have included supporting its former coal miner workforce, addressing financial downturns in regional and local economies, and completing environmental remediation and sustainable redevelopment in former industrial and coal-centric communities, among others.[150]Resources for the Future, German Just Transition: A Review of Public Policies to Assist German Coal Communities in Transition (Nov. 2021), https://media.rff.org/documents/21-13-Nov-22.pdf.

One of Germany’s major transition efforts involved the Ruhr area, which formerly produced most of Germany’s coal, hosting 140 of Germany’s 173 coal mines in 1957.[151]Elke Dahlbeck et al., Analysis of the historical structural change in the German hard coal mining Ruhr area 30 (2021), … Continue reading The Ruhr transition had several phases. The first phase (1966 through 1974) involved an effort to preserve the coal industry by modernizing mining techniques and subsidizing infrastructure.[152]Id. at 16. At the same time, however, the Ruhr development program of 1968 aimed to encourage the growth of new industries in the Ruhr area and to expand public infrastructure, services, and universities in the area. The federal government, the state, the European Community, and the German Federal Employment Agency contributed approximately 8.69 million euros to this effort.[153]Id. at 56. Additionally, in 1970, the Ruhr development program expanded to become the North Rhine-Westphalia program (15.84 billion euros of financing), with further investments in modernizing coal mining and adding more universities to the region, including what is now Germany’s largest university.[154]Id. One challenge associated with efforts to attract new industries to the Ruhr area, however, was that coal companies continued to own much of the land and refused to sell it; this undercut municipal and state efforts to support new industrial development.[155]Id. at 57

Within the second phase of the Ruhr transition (1975-1986), the state of North Rhine-Westphalia initiated four transition and coal mine preservation measures: subsidizing hard coal mining technologies; supporting other energy technologies, including nuclear; expanding small- and medium-enterprise innovation; and subsidizing the steel industry.[156]Id. at 58.  The Ruhr action plan (APR) of 1980 consolidated these programs, with the exception of steel, and aimed to infuse funding into the area that would link university research and knowledge with “local companies.” Funding also supported worker re-employment, education, the development of technology centers, and environmental protection, among other measures.[157]Id. The State of North Rhine-Westphalia provided approximately 2.61 billion Euros, and the federal government contributed approximately 0.77 billion Euros to support the APR, which lasted for four years. Municipalities and “third parties” also contributed funding.[158]Id.  Also during this phase, the Ruhr property fund, established in 1979 and administered by the state development company of North Rhine-Westphalia, focused on environmental remediation and site redevelopment. Through this fund, former coal mines that had not been transferred to the newly-formed Rural coal corporation (RAG, comprised of merged coal companies from the region) were designated for redevelopment for other industries.[159]Id. at 53, 59.

The third phase of Ruhr transition (1987-1999) involved a recognition that different regions in the Ruhr required different transition solutions and that the entire area needed to move away from reliance on coal mining.[160]Id. at 16, 28 This recognition largely arose from rounds of talks involving stakeholders, including former coalmine workers. The state parliament of North Rhine-Westphalia formed the coal and steel region future initiative (ZIM), which channeled federal, state, municipal, and European Community funds to regions for redevelopment and a more concerted transition away from coal mining.[161]Id. at 60. Six regions of the Ruhr area held regional conferences in which “[m]unicipalities, businesses, academia, research and transfer institutes, trade unions and labour administrations” participated.[162]Id.  The Future initiative for the regions of North Rhine-Westphalia (ZIN) further expanded this effort to the entire state of North Rhine-Westphalia, encompassing more than just the Ruhr area.[163]Id. Through a “bottom-up” strategy led by  regional stakeholders, regions each established a development initiative through the approval of state-level departments, and these initiatives focused primarily on “technology transfer bodies,” which aimed to “transfer the technological expertise from research into practice” in order to support start-ups.[164]Id. at 60-61.  Regional initiatives also focused on ecological restoration, “conversion of old industrial buildings,” the transformation of brownfields to new “industrial and service sites,” and housing redevelopment. [165]Id. at 63-64. 

Finally, the fourth phase of transition for the Ruhr area and North Rhine-Westphalia (from the year 2000 through the present day) more broadly involved industry sector-specific foci within each region, involving “clusters,” which are “geographical concentrations of [vertically] interdependent companies.”[166]Id. at 65. Funding in this phase has focused on financing start-ups and infrastructure to support innovation, among other areas.[167]Id. at 66. 14,000 new jobs have been created within this phase.[168]Id. See also Arora and Schroeder for a helpful summary of the Ruhr area transition.[169]Anmol Arora and Heike Schroeder, How to avoid unjust energy transitions: insights from the Ruhr region, 12 Energy, Sustainability, and Society (2022.).

At the federal level, beyond the efforts focused on North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany has also established the Commission on Growth, Structural Change and Employment, also known as the Coal Commission (“Kohlekommission”), whose mission is to develop strategies and tools to support a just transition away from coal.[170]Commission on Growth, Structural Change and Employment [Kommission „Wachstum, Strukturwandel und Beschäftigung”], Final Report [Abschlussbericht] (January 2019), … Continue reading The German government subsequently enacted the Coal Phase-Out Act, which adopts many of the Commission’s recommendations concerning the coal phase-out.[171]Act to Reduce and End Coal-Powered Energy and Amend Other Laws (Coal Phase-Out Act) [Gesetz zur Reduzierung und zur Beendigung der Kohleverstromung und zur Änderung weiterer Gesetze … Continue reading Included in this legislation is a 5-year compensation program for workers 58 years or older who lose their jobs due to a coal plant being decommissioned along with direct payments to make up for lost money from pension reductions due to early retirement.[172]Germany: Law on Phasing-Out Coal-Powered Energy by 2038 Enters into Force, Lib. of Cong., Aug. 31, 2020.

Essen, the European Green Capital for 2017

In 2017, Essen, Germany, officially became the European Green Capital for 2017. The European Commission (“Commission”) presents this award to a city that is “at the forefront of environmentally friendly urban living.”[173]Essen becomes the European Green Capital for 2017, European Comm’n (Jan. 20, 2017), https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_17_85. Essen received this award “for its success in transitioning from a heavily polluting mining center to a clean and green economy.”[174]Essen: A Beacon of City Climate Action, U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (Jan. 11, 2017), https://unfccc.int/news/essen-a-beacon-of-city-climate-action. Essen sits in North Rhine-Westphalia, a historically high coal producing state, and Germany’s most populous state.

Among the factors that the independent judges found most appealing were Essen’s CO2 emissions reductions target of 40% by 2020, a target to create 20,000 jobs in the environmental sector by 2025, and a target to reduce car travel 29% by 2035.[175]Essen becomes the European Green Capital for 2017, European Comm’n (Jan. 20, 2017), https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_17_85. Some of the specific initiatives the judges noted were Essen’s creation of over 150 km of green space, which over 250,000 people can access within 500 meters, the installation of low-noise pollution asphalt roads, and the introduction of Low Emission Zones.[176]European Comm’n, Expert Panel – Technical Assessment Synopsis Report: European Green Capital Award 2017 (Apr. 2015), … Continue reading The Commission hopes that cities such as Essen will act as a model for sustainable urban living moving forward.

Some of the specific physical markers of energy transition in Essen include creative reuse of former coal mine infrastructure, such as the Zollverein Coal Mine. The former cookery for the coal mine is now an ice rink in the winter.[177]Chiara Robotti, European Investment Bank, A blueprint for turning a city green (Mar. 3, 2017), https://www.eib.org/en/stories/a-blueprint-for-turning-a-city-green#. The European Investment Bank funded portions of the transition, including approximately 30% of the cost of new underground sewers and greenspaces.[178]Id.

Greece

Greece is a strong contributor to achieving the EU goal of net zero emissions by 2050, through its energy and climate policies.[179]International Energy Agency, Greece must build on its successes in reducing fossil fuel dependence, IEA report says, … Continue reading These policies focus on ensuring energy security, enhancing economic competitiveness, and safeguarding vulnerable consumers.[180]Id.

In 2022, Greece’s production of renewable energy, with wind, solar, and hydroelectric sources collectively contributed to nearly 50% of the nation’s electricity production. [181]Grece Hebdo, Climat: La Grèce à la COP 27 et L’initiative “Greco … Continue reading)This substantial reliance on renewable energy positions Greece as a leading country in this domain.[182]Id. It boasts an impressive installation of more than 10 gigawatts of solar and wind power capacity, ranking it among the top ten nations globally for wind and solar energy adoption.[183]Id.

Greece’s National Energy and Climate Plan sets a target of achieving 28 gigawatts (GW) of renewable energy capacity by 2030.[184]Harry Aposporis, Greece boosts 2030 renewable energy target by 9 GW, adds hydrogen (published Jan.18, 2023) … Continue reading Additionally, it aims to establish 8 GW of energy storage capacity. [185]Id.

Italy

Italy holds the third position in Europe for both consuming and generating power from renewable sources[186]International Trade Administration, (Nov.26,2022) … Continue reading. Italy has been going strong in its search for transitioning from carbon energy to renewable sources.

In fact, the NECP (National Energy and Climate Plans) had updated the objectives that had been established in 2017 to more ambitious ones based on the progress Italy made since then.

For example, it achieved its 2020 target for renewables as a percentage of total energy consumption, surpassing the original goal by reaching 18.2% compared to the 17% target.[187]See Id.

Searching to consolidate this progress, Italy wants to concentrate the use of the European Aid funds on the Energy sector.[188]Olivier Tosseri, L’Italie veut concentrer les aides européennes sur le secteur de l’énergie, Les Echos, (Feb.7,2023) … Continue reading

Italy plans to continue its renewable energy initiatives while aiming to expand the role of green hydrogen.  It aims for 2% consumption of green hydrogen by 2030 and 20% by 2050. [189]French Ministry of Economy, Finance, and Industrial and Digital Sovereignty, Italy Climate & Energy (Apr.15,2021) … Continue reading

Norway

The movement away from carbon-based energy and toward low and zero-carbon energy in Norway started very early and, at this point, is one of the most advanced European countries in this movement. The country’s approach has been based on hydropower based-energy technologies and onshore and offshore wind resources.[190]Chambers and Partners, Alternative Energy & Power 2023, https://practiceguides.chambers.com/practice-guides/alternative-energy-power-2023/norway/trends-and-developments (last visited Nov. 13, 2023)
However, the country is one of the seven largest oil and gas producers and exporters.[191]International Energy Agency, Executive Summary (2022), https://www.iea.org/reports/norway-2022/executive-summary (last visited Nov. 13, 2023) In 2020, 87% of the country’s energy production was exported.[192]Id. The country is considered a reliable producer and supplier of oil and gas, especially in satisfying European demand.[193]Id.
Much of Norway’s current efforts are directed to offshore wind projects, with the help of Equinor, a Norwegian government company. Equinor is helping to implement offshore wind farms, one of which is Hywind Tampen, a wind farm located about 140 kilometers from shore that began producing power in the third quarter of 2022 and became fully operational as of August 2023.[194]Equinor, The world’s largest floating offshore wind farm officially openedhttps://www.equinor.com/news/20230823-hywind-tampen-officially-opened (last visited Nov. 13, 2023) This project has a 88MW capacity.[195]Id.

Portugal

The Ukrainian- Russian war was a catalyst for all the EU countries to switch to renewable energy and break loose from the energy dependency they have from the two countries. [196]Sergio Goncalves, Portugal to speed up switch to renewable power in wake of Ukraine war, Reuters (Apr. 1, … Continue reading

The transition has been pushed by a rise in the price of electricity and the inability of citizens to keep up with the high energy charges caused by the war.[197]Marie Charrel, Portugal to speed up switch to renewable power in wake of Ukraine war, Le monde (published Nov. 22, 2022) … Continue reading

Portugal is investing in more renewable energy, mainly solar and wind. In an effort to achieve the goals of COP 27, 50% of the electricity this year has been produced by solar and wind energy.[198]Euronews Green, Solar, €49 train tickets and home energy efficiency: Why Portugal is our Green Country of the Month, (published Jul.31,2023 … Continue reading

This improvement shows in their new adjusted 2030 plans. The government aims to reach its 2030 goals of 80% production of electricity from  renewable energy by 2026.[199]Id

Romania

Romania stands out among European nations as one of the least reliant on Russian oil and gas, thanks to its robust energy production capabilities. In 2020, 17% of Romania’s energy imports were sourced from Russia, a figure that fell below the European Union’s average of 24 percent. [200]Ylenia Gostoli, Energy crisis accelerates Romania’s transition to renewables, TRT World, https://www.trtworld.com/magazine/energy-crisis-accelerates-romania-s-transition-to-renewables-59931 

Romania’s energy policy has a dual focus: ensuring energy security while upholding regional, European and global obligations. [201]Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Website https://www.mae.ro/en/node/2160 (Last updated, Mar. 2021)

The Romanian government is striving to attain energy self-sufficiency, yet experts caution that there are lingering issues, even as environmental organizations advocate for an increased use of renewable energy sources. [202]Pavel Sinka, Romania Aims for Energy Independence in Response to War in Ukraine, Euractiv, … Continue reading

For energy stability purposes, following the conflict between Ukraine and Russia, Romania had to delay its coal phase-out goal from 2030 to 2032. This initiative involved substituting a significant portion of the nation’s coal-based power generation with natural gas. [203]See Supra note 1

In 2023, Romania is set to expand its largest coal mine in Oltenia [204] Mihajlo Vujasin, Romania plans to expand coal mine over 100 hectares of forests, Balkan Green Energy News, (Jan.16, 2023) … Continue reading, with an annual capacity to produce eight million tonnes of lignite. Due to the current gas crisis, coal-generated electricity is experiencing a resurgence, causing a delay in the progress of the energy transition.[205]Id.

Slovenia

Slovenia is actively pursuing a transition to low-carbon energy sources by emphasizing energy efficiency, the expansion of renewable energy resources, and the development of advanced electricity distribution networks. While nuclear energy and hydroelectric power will continue to play significant roles in their energy strategy, experts highlight the need for optimization, digitalization, enhanced efficiency, and the creation of export-oriented products and services to achieve the 2030 carbon emission goals, which are projected to require an investment ranging from EUR 600 million to EUR 2.5 billion.[206]https://www.trade.gov/country-commercial-guides/slovenia-energy#:~:text=Slovenia%20is%20seeking%20to%20gradually,of%20active%20electricity%2Ddistribution%20networks.

As part of the EU’s collective Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the Paris Agreement, Slovenia is committed to reducing emissions by 55% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels.[207]European commission on behalf the European Union and its members, European Union, Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of the European Union Towards The Climate Agreement of Paris 2015 (2020), … Continue reading The country is aligned with the EU’s target to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.[208]Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Slovenia, Integrated Energy and Climate Plan of the Republic of Slovenia 2021-2030. (2020), available at p. 21 … Continue reading Slovenia’s specific targets include reaching 27% renewable energy in gross final consumption of energy in 2030, from 25% in 2020, which is well below the 37% renewable share in 2030 recommended in the Regulation (EU) 2018/1999.[209]European Commission, Summary of the Commission assessment of the draft National Energy and Climate Plan 2021-2030. (2020), available at p.2 … Continue reading 

Programs 

National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP)

Slovenia’s draft National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP) for 2020 and 2030 outlines objectives and actions based on existing measures and proposals for 2030 targets. The plan hinges on forthcoming parliamentary approval of the Energy Concept of Slovenia (ReEKS) for long-term energy objectives. To ensure a robust final plan, policy consistency, innovation, and energy efficiency opportunities are crucial for economic modernization and job creation.[210]Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Slovenia, Integrated Energy and Climate Plan of the Republic of Slovenia 2021-2030. (2020), available at … Continue reading

However, under the Summary of the Commission’s assessment, the NECP lacks policies and measures necessary to achieve the 2030 greenhouse gas emission target, particularly for non-EU Emission Trading System sectors. It also doesn’t address potential cost-efficient transfers to other EU Member States or consider the growth and job opportunities.[211]European Commission, Summary of the Commission assessment of the draft National Energy and Climate Plan 2021-2030. (2020), available at … Continue reading  Additionally, Slovenia’s energy efficiency contribution lacks a defined target for final energy consumption or comprehensive EU-level policies and measures; improving these aspects in the final plan would better align with broader EU energy efficiency goals.[212]Id. at 2

Legislative initiatives

Energy efficiency target declared by Slovenia under the EU Directive (2012/27/EU)

Under the EU Directive (2012/27/EU), Slovenia set a target of achieving 10.809 GWh in energy savings by 2020, in alignment with the broader EU objective of reducing energy consumption by 20% (equivalent to 1483 million tons of oil equivalent or Mtoe) by the same year.[213]EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, DIRECTIVE 2012/27/EU On Energy Efficiency Target (2012), available at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:315:0001:0056:en:PDF The directive mandated all Member States, including Slovenia, to establish energy-saving programs.[214]Id. at 13 Energy distributors and retail energy sales companies in these countries were legally obligated to annually save 1.5% of their energy sales through measures like enhancing heating system efficiency, installing double-glazed windows, or roof insulation among final energy customers.[215]Id. at 15 This collective effort aimed to enhance energy efficiency, decrease energy consumption, and contribute to the EU’s broader energy-saving targets.[216]Id. at 1

Slovenia Net-Metering System

On December 10, 2015, Slovenia introduced the Decree on self-supply of electricity from renewable energy sources, establishing a net-metering program effective from January 16, 2016.[217]International Energy Agency, Slovenia Net-Metering System (Uredbo o samooskrbi z elektricno energijo iz obnovljivih virov energije) (2015), available at … Continue reading This program primarily caters to households and small businesses, emphasizing electricity production for self-consumption rather than export.[218]Id. At the end of each calendar year, any surplus energy sent to the grid won’t be compensated.[219]Id. Eligibility is limited to installations of 11kVA or smaller, and there’s an annual connection limit of 10 MVA, divided into 7 MVA for households and 3 MVA for businesses.[220]Id.. While all renewable energy installations can participate in net metering, not all participants are eligible for feed-in tariffs and premium support.[221]Republic of Slovenia, Slovenia Net-Metering System (2015), available at http://www.pisrs.si/Pis.web/pregledPredpisa?id=URED7867

Spain

As a member of the European Union, Spain is part of the joint Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), a strategic plan within the EU’s commitment to the Paris Agreement, and the updated 2020 submission to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) pledges a 55% reduction in emissions by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. [222]European Commission on behalf of the European Union and its members, European Union, Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of the European Union Towards The Climate Agreement of Paris … Continue reading

Consequently, Spain aims to achieve national climate neutrality by 2050, with a target for renewables to supply 100% of electricity and 97% of the overall energy mix, emphasizing extensive deployment of renewable energy, energy efficiency, electrification, and renewable hydrogen in its energy policies. [223]International Energy Agency, Spain’s extensive policy plans set to help underpin a successful energy transition powered by renewables and efficiency (2021), available … Continue reading

Additionally, the Spanish government has established ambitious and legally binding renewable energy targets for 2030, aiming for a 74% share of renewables in electricity consumption, a significant increase from the 37% recorded in 2019. [224]Spanish Presidency of the Council of the European Union, Spain, a benchmark in renewable energies, is in the throes of far-reaching reforms to lead the green transition in the EU (2023), available … Continue reading  Spain’s renewable energy market has experienced a robust resurgence, overcoming challenges from previous cuts to renewable energy project subsidies in the mid-2010s, which were implemented to address issues related to a growing tariff deficit and overcapacity in the sector. [225]Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope Spain (2022), available at https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/es/. Haga clic o pulse si confía en este vínculo." href="https://nam10.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.global-climatescope.org%2Fmarkets%2Fes%2F&data=05%7C01%7Cjjo5503%40psu.edu%7Cf1e45555c5994581ff9308dbf0469a7b%7C7cf48d453ddb4389a9c1c115526eb52e%7C0%7C0%7C638367958259236434%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000%7C%7C%7C&sdata=xUbd36%2FPRbsXx%2F5JA6SauPbIt64j4%2Bh8Uxnh2McHB94%3D&reserved=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" data-auth="Verified" data-linkindex="4">https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/es/ (last visited Nov. 24, 2023)

Programs 

Spain is witnessing a growing market for renewable energy projects without government subsidies. [226]Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope Spain (2022), available at https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/es/. Haga clic o pulse si confía en este vínculo." href="https://nam10.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.global-climatescope.org%2Fmarkets%2Fes%2F&data=05%7C01%7Cjjo5503%40psu.edu%7Cf1e45555c5994581ff9308dbf0469a7b%7C7cf48d453ddb4389a9c1c115526eb52e%7C0%7C0%7C638367958259243424%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000%7C%7C%7C&sdata=2PS6w07SWzDvvY075wObpmG3v5LN25QDBJBLlqHeY7Y%3D&reserved=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" data-auth="Verified" data-linkindex="5">https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/es/ (last visited Nov. 24, 2023) However, developers still have the opportunity to secure offtake contracts from the government through auctions. [227]Id. In 2021, the government conducted two auctions for clean energy projects, and they are planning to hold third and fourth rounds in 2022 under the newly introduced Economic Regime for Renewable Energy (REER) program. [228]Id. These auctions provide two-way Contracts for Difference (CfDs), which involve a simplified payment mechanism based on euros per megawatt-hour and come with a 12-year contract duration. [229]Id.

In 2021, the initial two auction rounds supported the development of 3.3 gigawatts (GW) of onshore wind projects and 2.9 GW of solar projects, primarily benefiting smaller developers. [230]Bloomberg NEF, supra note 1 The third round, held in October 2022, secured 520 megawatts (MW) of clean energy capacity. [231]Id. On November 2022, the fourth round was focused on adding another 3.3 GW of renewable energy capacity, with a mix of utility-scale onshore wind and solar projects. [232]Id. The government’s auction schedule outlines plans for four additional auction rounds each year from 2023 to 2026. [233]Id. These rounds are expected to allocate a total of 9 GW of Contracts for Difference (CfDs) to solar projects, 7.5 GW to onshore wind projects, and 1 GW to other technologies, including solar thermal. [234]Bloomberg NEF, supra note 1

Despite the auction pipeline’s contribution, meeting the government’s 2030 targets in Spain requires constructing an additional 20GW of renewables, constituting slightly over 50% of total capacity additions, without government support, in addition to upcoming REER auction volumes. [235]Id.

Legislative initiatives

The Climate Change and Energy Transition (Law 07/2021): 

Spain enacted Law 7/2021 in May 2021 to facilitate the country’s compliance with the Paris Agreement. [236]Antonio Morales, Jose Moran, Guadalupe Mairata, Spain: Spain formalizes its commitment to energy transition, Baker McKenzie, (2021), available … Continue reading) Following Spain’s signing of the Paris Agreement on April 22, 2016, the primary goals include enabling the decarbonization of the Spanish economy and addressing climate change, with the overarching aim of achieving climate neutrality by 2050. [237]Id. To achieve this objective, the law establishes various interim targets for 2030, including a minimum 23% reduction in Spain’s emissions from 1990 levels, ensuring that renewable energy comprises at least 42% of the nation’s energy mix, aiming for 74% of electricity generation to be from renewables, and enhancing energy efficiency by  decreasing energy demand by at least 39.5%. [238]Id. The legal framework imposes various restrictions on the extraction of new fossil fuel reserves in Spain, both onshore and offshore, due to the fact that the combustion of fossil fuels for electricity generation is the primary contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in the country.[239]Id.

The Just Transition Strategy 

It comprises initiatives aimed at fostering employment opportunities within the context of the energy transition. These efforts are underpinned by a comprehensive framework that includes vocational training, proactive labor policies, support measures for vulnerable populations, and economic stimulus plans targeting regions most affected by the shift towards sustainable energy sources.[240]Ministry of Energy Transition and Demographic Challenge of Spain, Spain, towards a just energy transition, Just Transition Institute Executive Report,(2022), 4-5, available at … Continue reading

Spain’s LongTerm Strategy (LTS) 

It outlines a strategy for progressing toward climate neutrality by 2050, aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 90% compared to 1990 levels. [241]Ministry of Energy Transition and Demographic Challenge of Spain, Long Tem Decarbonization Strategy 2050 (2020), 5-6, available … Continue reading) The plan includes specific targets for 2030 and 2040 and aims to capitalize on the advantages of transitioning to cleaner energy sources while enhancing economic transformation and competitiveness. [242]Id.

Sweden

The movement away from carbon-based energy and toward low and zero-carbon energy in Sweden is very well developed. This country has the smallest proportion of fossil fuels in its primary energy supply among all member countries of the International Energy Agency (IEA), and ranks as the second least carbon-intensive economy.[243]International Energy Agency, “Sweden is a leader in the energy transition, according to latest IEA country review”,available at … Continue reading

The nation’s success in transitioning its energy landscape is attributed to its adoption of market-driven policies, with a key emphasis on enhancing energy efficiency and expanding the use of renewable energy sources[244]See Id.. Particularly noteworthy is the implementation of CO2 taxation, which has played a pivotal role in propelling decarbonization across various sectors[245]Id..
Sweden is at the forefront of a low-carbon society, setting ambitious goals, including achieving 100% renewable electricity by 2040.[246]International Energy Agency, Energy Policy Review Sweden 2019, available at https://www.iea.org/reports/energy-policies-of-iea-countries-sweden-2019-review (April, 2019)

Sweden has set ambitious objectives in the field of clean energy.  In 2017, Sweden’s Parliament, with broad political support, enacted a groundbreaking climate policy framework, including a climate act aligning with the Paris Agreement. The objective is for Sweden to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2045.[247]Ministry of Climate and Enterprise,”Sweden’s climate policy framework”, Government Offices of Sweden(Mar.11,2021), … Continue reading

In pursuit of these objectives, Sweden has been significantly investing in clean energy initiatives. Since 2018, the country has doubled its wind capacity, currently operating close to 5,000 wind turbines[248]Charlotte Elton, “Sweden rebuked for ‘backwards’ climate policy despite wind power record”, Euronews available at … Continue reading. In February 2023, these turbines generated approximately 4 terawatts of energy, meeting 27% of the nation’s electricity demand.[249]See Id.

Asia Pacific

Australia

Hazelwood Coal Power Plant

In November of 2016, the French multinational utility company ENGIE announced the impending closure of the Hazelwood coal-fired power plant in Victoria’s Latrobe Valley.[250]World Resources Institute, Australia’s Latrobe Valley: Coordinating Private Companies to Redeploy Power Plant Workers (Apr. 1, 2021), available at … Continue reading Shortly after the announcement, the Victorian government established the Latrobe Valley Authority (LVA), which was tasked with “‘leading the transition and transformation of the Latrobe Valley by working for and with workers, business and the community to transition to a strong future through response, recovery and long-term strategic work.’”[251]John Wiseman et al., After the Hazelwood coal fired power station closure: Latrobe Valley regional transition policies and outcomes 2017-2020, Australian National University, Crawford School of … Continue reading The federal government and Victoria provided financial support for job retraining, direct worker assistance such as counseling and job-seeking assistance, and economic redevelopment and diversification.[252]See Supra note Additionally, Regional Development Victoria created a Supply Chain Transition Program to help companies create business transition plans and the Latrobe Valley Economic Facilitation Fund to enhance capital investment in the valley, with an estimated 968 jobs created by 2019 as a result of this investment.[253]Latrobe Valley Authority, Latrobe Valley Community Report: Transitioning to a strong future November 2016-November 2019 at 4 (Dec. 2019), available at … Continue reading The Latrobe Valley Authority’s Community and Facility Fund provided further support for local infrastructure and programs, such as upgrading and refurbishing streets and sports complexes using local contractors.[254]See Id. at 5.

Despite numerous transition support programs, up until the plant’s closure, there was much uncertainty about how to design programs and funding to ensure economic support to the plant’s 850 workers and the surrounding communities. One of the programs that the LVA enacted was the Worker Transfer Partnership Scheme, designed to reemploy workers at other Latrobe Valley businesses, including nearby coal mines. But the hiring process for many of these businesses was delayed.[255]Calla Wahlquist, Hazelwood workers hang up their hats as power station closes, The Guardian (Mar. 31, 2017), … Continue reading The Worker Transition Service was meant to be a one stop shop for the former Hazelwood workers to get information, training and support for new jobs. By some estimates, by mid-2019, fewer than half of the workers had full-time work.[256]Jarrod Whittaker, Latrobe Valley workers face legacy of unstable work two years after Hazelwood closure, ABC News (June 21, 2019), … Continue reading Other accounts report that by 2019, approximately 74% of former Hazelwood workers were no longer looking for work due to retirement or re-employment elsewhere.[257]See Supra note, at 3.

China

China’s Reallocation of Fossil Fuel Workers

The transition away from coal-mining jobs in China is largely due to economic forces rather than concerns about climate. To address overcapacity in some industries, China chose to scale back on coal mining and steel production at a quick rate. This shift forced the Chinese government to attempt to reallocate over 500,000 workers in State Owned Enterprises beginning in 2017.[258]China to reallocate 500,000 coal and steel workers in 2017: labor minister, Reuters (Mar. 1, 2017), … Continue reading Much of this reallocation has occurred in the Shanxi province, a province historically dependent on—and proud of—coal.[259]Richard Bridle et al., International Institute for Sustainable Development, At the Crossroads: Balancing the financial and social costs of coal transition in China 4 (2017), … Continue reading China has promised to spend 100 billion Yuan (~14.3 billion USD) to assist with inevitable layoffs that a scaleback will entail.[260]China sets up 100 billion yuan fund to cover layoffs in coal, steel sectors, Reuters (Feb. 29, 2016), https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-economy-employment-fund-idINKCN0W20JT . After announcing this scaleback, the Chinese Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security proposed four ways to relocate laid off coal workers: internal reemployment within companies, reemployment at other companies, retirement, and reemployment in public positions.[261]The Institute of Strategic Studies of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels, Energy transition, national strategies, and oil companies: what are the impacts for workers? 50 (Nov. 2020), … Continue reading The government has stated that it has successfully relocated over 1.2 million coal workers, but the government has not yet fully publicized the data supporting this statement.[262]Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security of the People’s Republic of China, How to View China’s Employment Situation [如何看待我国就业形势], referencing article originally … Continue reading

Economic Restructuring in China’s Mining Cities

Through policies at the national, provincial, and municipal level, China has attempted to avoid the typical boom-and-bust cycle many resource-based cities experience, focusing on coal mining towns. These policies include extending the existing industry, substituting it, and developing a circular economy (where waste is inputted into another process).[263]Sylvia He et al., Shrinking cities and resource-based economy: The economic restructuring in China’s mining cities, 60 Cities 75 at 5 (2017), … Continue reading Prime examples of this economic restructuring are Daqing (大庆), historically a gas-drilling city, and Pingxiang (萍乡), a coal-mining city.[264]Id. at 6-12.

Daqing, also known as the “petroleum city,” underwent an economic restructuring in the 1990s, attempting to extend a singular oil-mining economy to a petrochemical and manufacturing-based economy. [265]Id. at 7.  However, this expansion is stalled by the Central Government’s control of resources, the large number of state-owned enterprises leading to low private profits, and the low quotas for an extended petrochemical industry.[266]Id. at 8-9. Pingxiang, in turn, historically heavily relied on coal, but after the sharp decline in production in the 1990s, coal-mining jobs rapidly disappeared.[267]Id. at 9. Instead of extending the industrial chain of coal mining, Pingxiang has attempted to develop a substitute industry including ceramics, cements, fireworks/firecrackers, and tourism.[268]Id. at 10. This substitution led to a GDP of 91.2 RMB, a growth of 8.9%, in 2015, higher than the national average.[269]Id.

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Jordan has been a pioneer in renewable energy development in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region,[270]Neil Quilliam & Jessica Obeid, How to unlock the potential of Jordan’s renewable energy sector, Kalam,(2023), … Continue reading given its number of advantages for renewable energy development, including abundant sunshine and wind. [271]Id.

The country has set ambitious renewable energy targets and is making significant progress, aiming to generate half of its energy needs from renewable energy by 2030[272]Jordan Times, Jordan leads Arab world in renewable energy production, says Kharabsheh (2023), https://jordantimes.com/news/local/jordan-leads-arab-world-renewable-energy-production-says-kharabsheh . Its renewable energy development is being supported by a number of international partners, including the World Bank[273]The World Bank, Two New Projects to Foster Climate Responsive Investments for Growth and Job Creation and to Support Jordan’s Electricity Sector Efficiency, The World Bank Press Release, (2023), … Continue reading, and the German government[274]The Jordanian German Energy Partnership Website, available at https://www.energy-jordan-germany.org/energy-partnership/ (last visited Dec. 7, 2023

Jordan has made significant progress in expanding renewable energy, but still faces challenges related to infrastructure, financing, and conflicting interests with the fossil fuel industry.[275]Neil Quilliam & Jessica Obeid, supra note 1 Nevertheless, more coordinated governance is needed to drive the energy transition forward.[276]Id.

Currently the country is exploring the potential of geothermal energy given its geothermal sites that could be used to generate electricity and heat.[277]Ahmad A. Salah, Mohammad M. Shalby & Firas Basim Ismail, The status and potential of renewable energy development in Jordan: exploring challenges and opportunities, Sustainability: Science, … Continue reading Jordan is also working to develop its electrical grid and energy storage capacity. The country is building a new high-voltage transmission line to connect its renewable energy projects to the grid.[278]Energy & Utilities, Jordan a rising star in renewable power and exports, (2023), https://energy-utilities.com/jordan-a-rising-star-in-renewable-power-and-news121608.html (last visited Dec. 07, … Continue reading

Kuwait

Kuwait, ranking among the globe’s top ten oil producers and boasting the sixth-largest confirmed oil reserves, maintains a thriving economy due to its limited population, although it predominantly relies on income generated from oil exports.[279]KUWAIT INSTITUTE FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, Kuwait Energy Outlook (2022), available at https://www.kisr.edu.kw/en/gi/1/details/ Despite its aspirations to transition towards a low-carbon economy by 2050, Kuwait presently lacks a clear net-zero objective or strategy, and a comprehensive fossil fuel phase-out policy remains absent.[280]BLOOMBERG NEF, Climatescope: Kuwait (2022), available at https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/kw/

In its recently updated Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), which outlines its official plan to fulfill the Paris Agreement objectives, Kuwait is committed to curtailing its greenhouse gas emissions by 7.4% by 2035, relative to a business-as-usual scenario starting from 2015 levels.[281]GOVERNMENT OF KUWAIT, Nationally Determined Contribution (2021), available at https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/NDC/2022-06/Kuwait%20updating%20the%20first%20NDC-arabic.pdf This endeavor specifically targets emissions reduction in sectors such as energy, industrial processes, agriculture, forestry, and other land use.[282]Id. at 17. The plan also highlights the potential impact of climate change on Kuwait and presents an overview of the nation’s greenhouse gas inventory.[283]Id. at 17. It underscores Kuwait’s ambition to cut 7.4% of its greenhouse gas emissions by 2035, encompassing carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide emissions, and draws attention to mitigation projects in the energy sector, concentrating on enhancing energy efficiency in power generation and implementing carbon capture and storage.[284]Id. at 16.

Programs
 Renewable Energy Building and Site Integration
The program’s objective is to encourage the adoption of photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal systems for both electricity generation and cooling/heating applications in a wide range of settings, spanning residential, governmental, public, commercial, and industrial structures.[285]INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY, Renewable Energy Building and Site Integration (2021), available at https://www.iea.org/policies/5542-renewable-energy-building-and-site-integration Key ongoing initiatives encompass the establishment of a National Grid-Connected PV Laboratory, the advancement and deployment of PV and solar thermal technologies tailored to the needs of the oil sector, and the integration of PV systems into residential, educational, and governmental buildings.[286]KUWAIT INSTITUTE FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, Sustainable Energy, Building Materials, and Infrastructure (2023), available at https://www.kisr.edu.kw/en/research-centers/energy-building/
In pursuit of its mission, the program seeks to drive the implementation of PV and solar thermal solutions across diverse sectors and to support various projects, including the National Grid-Connected PV Laboratory, the development and deployment of technology catering to the oil sector’s demands, and the incorporation of PV systems within residential, school, and government structures.[287]Id.

Innovative Renewable Energy Research Program
The program’s primary objective is to facilitate the diversification of energy resources and ensure a sustainable supply of both energy and water for the future. It intends to achieve this by offering innovative renewable energy solutions and clean combustion technologies.[288]NTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY, Innovative Renewable Energy Research Program (2021), available at https://www.iea.org/policies/5539-innovative-renewable-energy-research-program The program encompasses a comprehensive approach that includes research and studies to determine the most suitable renewable energy technologies for implementation, adapting technologies to local conditions, and conducting research and development to create novel systems tailored to Kuwait’s future requirements.[289]Id. The key focus areas within this program include solar photovoltaic systems, Concentrating Solar Power (solar thermal power generation), solar cooling solutions, wind power, fuel cells with an emphasis on hydrogen storage technologies, and clean combustion technologies.[290]KUWAIT INSTITUTE FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, About us (2023), available at https://www.kisr.edu.kw/en/discover-kisr/about-us/ By following these strategic steps, the program aims to pave the way for the commercialization of the developed prototype systems.[291]Id.
In summary, this program’s overarching goal is to foster energy resource diversification, ultimately ensuring a sustainable energy and water supply for the future through the utilization of cutting-edge renewable energy and clean combustion solutions.

Morocco

Morocco is aiming to become a major renewable energy producer and exporter, the country has invested heavily in solar, wind, and other renewables taking advantage of its abundant natural solar and wind resources. [292]Llewellyn King, Morocco Wants To Be A ‘Destination’ For Renewable Energy, Forbes Magazine, (Aug.1, 2022) … Continue reading. Currently, it has around 11,000 MW of total installed electricity generating capacity, with over 4,000 MW from renewables. It plans to install over 4,500 MW of additional renewable capacity [293]See Id..

Morocco aims to satisfy its own electricity demand and also become a major renewable energy exporter to North Africa and Europe, fulfilling its goal of becoming a regional leader and model for transitioning from fossil fuels to clean energy[294]See Id..

The country hopes to eventually export significant amounts of renewable power to Europe via existing and planned interconnections with Spain, Portugal, and the UK[295]See Id..

Morocco has made great strides in renewable energy development compared to other developing nations. It aims to source 52% of its energy needs from domestic renewable sources by 2030[296]Jihane Rahhou, Report: Morocco’s 2030 Green Energy Target Is ‘Most Credible’ in MENA , (Sep. 18, … Continue reading.

Oman

Oman’s energy supply relies entirely on domestically produced natural gas and oil products, and the nation is a significant exporter of both oil and gas.[297]International Energy Agency, Countries: Oman (2023), available at https://www.iea.org/countries/oman However, as of September 2021, Oman lacked a net-zero goal or strategy, primarily because of its heavy dependence on oil and liquefied natural gas (LNG).[298]Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope: Oman (2023), available at https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/om/ To address this, the National Strategy for an Orderly Transition to Net Zero was introduced as a green transition pathway with the objective of attaining carbon neutrality by 2050.[299]International Energy Agency, National Strategy for an Orderly Transition to Net Zero (2023), available at https://www.iea.org/policies/17268-national-strategy-for-an-orderly-transition-to-net-zero The strategy outlines key objectives such as environmental sustainability, energy system cost management, economic and social impacts, and ensuring a secure energy supply by 2050, ultimately striving for self-sufficiency in power and hydrogen production.[300]Ministry Of Energy and Mines Of Oman, The Sultanate of Oman´s National Strategy for an Orderly Transition to Net Zero, p.5 (2022), available at … Continue reading

The country has committed to decreasing its overall greenhouse gas emissions by 2% by the year 2030 through its intended Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).[301]International Energy Agency, Oman´s Second Nationally Determined Contribution (2023), available at https://www.iea.org/policies/15254-omans-second-nationally-determined-contribution These NDCs are integrated into Oman’s 2040 vision and national energy strategy, supporting a gradual shift toward a low-carbon economy and reducing carbon emissions within the energy sector.[302]Id. 

The strategy is built upon two main foundations: the first involves the expansion of large-scale renewable projects and the enhancement of energy efficiency, while the second entails implementing a carbon reduction initiative specifically targeting the oil and gas sector. [303]Id.

[304]United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Oman´s Second Nationally Determined Contribution (2021), available at … Continue reading (would recommend just using the same reference from IEA)

Oman seeks to integrate renewable sources into its energy mix and enhance the efficiency of power plants, while also implementing fiscal measures to promote energy conservation in various end-use activities.[305]United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Oman´s Second Nationally Determined Contribution, at 7 (2021), available at … Continue reading These combined efforts are projected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 7% in 2030, equating to approximately 125 million metric tons of CO2 equivalent.[306]Id. at 3

Despite these efforts, Oman has not set a policy to phase out fossil fuels due to its continued reliance on oil and LNG.[307]Id. at 10 However, the nation does have a plan to gradually reduce its LNG imports from Qatar, indicating a modest shift toward diversifying its energy sources while maintaining a level of dependency on fossil fuels.[308]Oman´s Second Nationally Determined Contribution, supra note 7, at 10.

Programs
Renewables 2025 Target
In collaboration with Petroleum Development Oman and under the Ministry of Energy and Minerals’ guidance, the Sultanate of Oman unveiled its 3,050 MW renewable energy target for 2025 in 2020.[309]INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY, Renewables 2025 Target (2023), available at https://www.iea.org/policies/17271-renewables-2025-target By 2030, the Oman Power and Water Procurement Company (OPWP) aims to contribute 30% of the Sultanate’s total generation capacity, necessitating the establishment of at least 3,050 megawatts (MW) of renewable energy capacity by 2025.[310]OMAN SUSTAINABILITY WEEK, Oman Targets 3,050 Mw of Renewables By 2025 (2020), available at https://www.omansustainabilityweek.com/LatestUpdate2021.aspx?LatestUpdate=pressRe3

Oman 2040 Vision
Oman Vision 2040 serves as the nation’s pathway to address challenges and adapt to evolving global and regional dynamics.[311]GOVERNMENT OF OMAN, Oman Vision 2040 (2021), available at https://www.mof.gov.om/pdf/Vision_Documents_En.pdf It aims to achieve 20% renewable energy consumption by 2030 and 35-39% by 2040.[312]Id. at 39. The vision seeks to enhance economic competitiveness, promote social well-being, stimulate overall growth, and instill confidence in various national economic, social, and developmental aspects while actively seizing opportunities for progress.[313]Id. at 8.

Legislative initiatives

Royal Decree No. 10/2023
This Decree designates land for renewable energy and clean hydrogen initiatives[314]INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY, Royal Decree No. 10/2023 (2023), available at https://www.iea.org/policies/17269-royal-decree-no-102023 , with the Ministry of Energy and Minerals having exclusive authority to delineate and execute the specifics of on-site green energy and clean hydrogen undertakings from February 2023.[315]OMAN NEWS AGENCY, HM The Sultan Issues Two Royal Decrees (2023), available at … Continue reading

Qatar

Qatar is globally renowned for being a leading producer and exporter of liquefied natural gas.[316] Dentons, Qatar’s plans for renewable energy (2023), available at https://www.dentons.com/en/insights/alerts/2023/may/10/qatars-plans-for-renewable-energy (last visited Dec. 08, 2023) In recent times, the country has been actively working towards diversifying its energy portfolio to decrease carbon emissions.[317]Id.

The State of Qatar has set a significant national goal to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 25% by 2030, this objective stands as a cornerstone within Qatar’s National Vision 2030, which places a strong emphasis on sustainable social and environmental initiatives, economic diversification, technological advancement, and the development of a diversified energy mix.[318]International Trade Administration, Qatar Energy Greenhouse Gas (Ghg) Emissions Reductions And Sustainability Initiatives (2022), available at … Continue reading) Another integral component of Qatar’s national vision is the National Climate Change Plan, a strategic framework endorsed in September 2021 by the Qatar Council of Ministers and establishes national climate targets and includes more than 35 measures and over 300 adaptation initiatives focused on enhancing climate resilience.[319]Government Communications office, Environment and Sustainability (2022), available at https://www.gco.gov.qa/en/focus/environment-and-sustainability/ (last visited Dec. 07, 2023)

Climate change has become an increasingly central concern for the Qatari government, as evident from the establishment of the dedicated Ministry for Environment and Climate Change in October 2021, along with the rebranding of Qatar Petroleum to QatarEnergy (QE).[320]International Trade Administration, supra note 3. Moreover, Qatar has taken significant steps in renewable energy, particularly highlighted by the inauguration of its first major solar energy plant, Al Kharsaah, in October 2022.[321]Dentons, supra note 1.

References

References
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2 Jennifer Baka, Seth Blumsack, Caden Vitti, and Hannah Wiseman, , “The Local Social and Economic Context of Energy Transitions”, Center for Energy Law and Policy, 10 (Apr. 8, 2022), https://celp.psu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/Local-Social-and-Econ-Context-of-EnergyTransitions_Apr2022.pdf.
3 Colorado Just Transition Advisory Committee, Draft Colorado Just Transition Plan, p.20, available at https://cdle.colorado.gov/sites/cdle/files/2020-09/draft_colorado_just_transition_plan_08.03.2020.pdf (Aug.1, 2020).
4 Id. at 22
5 Id. at 24.
6 Colorado Dept. of Labor and Employment, Colorado Just Transition Action Plan 1 (2020),https://cdle.colorado.gov/sites/cdle/files/documents/Colorado%20Just%20Transition%20Action%20Plan.pdf
7 Id. at 1-2.
8 Jonathan Thompson, In San Juan Basin, cultural, economic bonds slow fossil fuel transition, Energy New Network (June 30, 2022), https://energynews.us/2022/06/30/in-san-juan-basin-cultural-economic-bonds-slow-fossil-fuel-transition/ .
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11 See San Juan Citizens Alliance, https://www.sanjuancitizens.org/energy-transition (last visited Nov. 3, 2022).
12 Jennifer Baka, et. al., The Local Social and Economic Context of Energy Transitions (2022), 9, available at https://celp.psu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/Local-Social-and-Econ-Context-of-EnergyTransitions_Apr2022.pdf.
13 Id.
14 Id.
15 Id.
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19 Id.
20 Act 27191 Legal Regulations on National Promotion for the Use of Sources of Renewable Energy, Congress Argentina (2015) (enacted) https://www.energia.gob.ar/contenidos/archivos/Reorganizacion/renovables/legislacion/ARGENTINA_-_Renewable_Energy_Law_Act_27191_(English_version).pdf
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27 Id.
28 Id.
29 Treasury Department of Chilean Government, Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of Chile Towards The Climate Agreement of Paris 2015, p5 (2015), available at https://www4.unfccc.int/sites/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Chile/1/INDC%20Chile%20english%20version.pdf
30 Treasury Department of Chilean Government, Nationally Determined Contribution Update 2020 (2020), 24,  available at https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/NDC/2022-06/Chile%27s_NDC_2020_english.pdf
31 Id. at 39
32 Id. at 13
33 Id. at 12
34 Press Release, Treasury Department, Chilean Government, Which are Chile’s NDC goals? When is Carbon Neutrality projected? (2020), available at  https://www.hacienda.cl/english/work-areas/international-finance/public-debt-office/frequently-asked-questions/sustainable-bonds/which-are-chile-s-ndc-goals-when-is-carbon-neutrality-projected-
35 Press Release, Chilean Government, Chile announces that it will work to put an end to coal use by 2030 after joining the Powering Past Coal Alliance (2021), available at https://www.gob.cl/en/news/chile-announces-it-will-work-put-end-coal-use-2030-after-joining-powering-past-coal-alliance/
36 Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope 2022: Chile, available at https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/cl/ (last visited Nov. 21, 2023
37 Id.
38 Id.
39 Climate Investment Fund, “Renewable Energy Integration, Shift to Zero Carbon”, https://www.cif.org/topics/renewable-energy-integration
40 Maria A, Planas, Juan Cárdenas., Colombia launches the Renewable Energy Integration Program of the Climate Investment Funds in Latin America, Inter-American Development Bank (Mar. 2, 2023), https://blogs.iadb.org/sostenibilidad/es/colombia-estrena-el-programa-de-integracion-de-energias-renovables-de-los-climate-investment-funds-en-america-latina/
41 See Id.
42 See Id.
43 See Id.
44 Bloomberg NEF, Climate Scope 2022 Dominican Republic, https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/do/ (last visited Nov. 16, 2023
45 Id.
46 Id.
47 Id.
48 Bloomberg NEF, supra note.1
49 PWC, Worldwide Tax Summaries: Dominican Republic, https://taxsummaries.pwc.com/dominican-republic/corporate/tax-credits-and-incentives (last visited Aug.07, 2023
50 Climate Scope, El Salvaor, Bloomberg NEF,https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/sv/
51 Euroclima, “El Salvador and the European Union present their climate change action plan”, https://www.euroclima.org/en/recent-events/en-news/1696-el-salvador-and-the-european-union-present-their-climate-change-action-plan
52 See Id.
53 Press and information team of the EU Delegation in El Salvador,“The European Union and El Salvador present their action plan against climate change”, European Union External Action, https://www.eeas.europa.eu/node/414297_en?s=186 (Jun.6,2022
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56 Bloomberg NEF, supra note 1
57 Id.
58 International trade Organization, Guatemala Renewable energy (2022) https://www.trade.gov/market-intelligence/guatemala-renewable-energy (last visited Nov. 13, 2023
59 Id.
60 Condensed consolidated interim financial statements, Enel Colombia S.A. E.S.P. and Subsidiaries, p.40, (Jun.30,2023) https://www.enel.com.co/content/dam/enel co/ingl%C3%A9s/shareholders_and_investors/enel-colombia/quarterly-finance-states/2023/enel-colombia-S.A.esp-consolidated%20financial%20statement.pdf 
61 Climate Scope, Panama,BloombergNEF,https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/pa/
62 Id.
63 CAT Climate Target Update Tracker, Climate Action Tracker, last updated Dec.18, 2020, available at https://climateactiontracker.org/climate-target-update-tracker/peru/
64 Peruvian Government, Nationally Determined Contributions Updated Report 2021-2030 (2020), available at https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/NDC/2022-06/Reporte%20de%20Actualizacio%CC%81n%20de%20las%20NDC%20del%20Peru%CC%81.pdf  
65 International Energy Agency Website, Last updated: 29 March 2017, https://www.iea.org/policies/4947-legislative-decree-1002-on-investment-promotion-for-generation-of-electricity-using-renewable-energy-of-peru
66 Id.
67 Humberto Campodónico & César Carrera, Energy transition and renewable energies: Challenges for Peru, 171 Energy Policy 113261, 113264(2022), available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2022.113261
68 Id.
69 Id.
70 Id.
71 Uruguay Government, Nationally Determined Contributions (2017), 3-7, available at https://www.ccacoalition.org/sites/default/files/resources//2017_First-NDC_Uruguay%28ES%29.pdf
72 Uruguay Government, Nationally Determined Contributions (2022), 3, available at https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/NDC/2022-12/Uruguay%20Segunda%20CDN.pdf
73 Id.
74 Bloomberg NEF, Climate Scope 2022 Uruguay, https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/uy/ (last visited Nov. 17, 2023
75 International Energy Agency, Uruguay https://www.iea.org/countries/uruguay (last visited Aug. 09, 2023
76 International Renewable Energy Agency, Renewable Energy Policy Brief, Uruguay (2015), available at https://www.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2015/IRENA_RE_Latin_America_Policies/IRENA_RE_Latin_America_Policies_2015_Country_Uruguay.pdf (last visited Aug. 09, 2023
77 Bloomberg NEF, supra note 4
78 Industry, Energy & Mines Department, Uruguay Department, Green Hydrogen Roadmap in Uruguay (2022), 38, available at https://www.gub.uy/ministerio-industria-energia-mineria/sites/ministerio-industria-energia-mineria/files/documentos/noticias/Green%20Hydrogen%20Roadmap%20in%20Uruguay.pdf
79 See Supra note 49
80 European Council, European Union, European Green Deal- Fit for 55 information (2023), available at https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/policies/green-deal/fit-for-55-the-eu-plan-for-a-green-transition/
81 European Parliament, European Union, Fact Sheets on the European Union: Energy policy (2023), available at https://www.europarl.europa.eu/factsheets/en/sheet/68/energy-policy-general-principles#:~:text=The%20current%20energy%20targets%20for,of%20the%20EU’s%20electricity%20systems.
82 European Parliament, European Union, Fact Sheets on the European Union: Energy Efficiency (2023), available at https://www.europarl.europa.eu/factsheets/en/sheet/69/energy-efficiency#:~:text=On%2010%20March%202023%2C%20Parliament,compared%20to%20the%202007%20projections ; European Council, European Union, Renewable energy: Council adopts new rules (2023), available at https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2023/10/09/renewable-energy-council-adopts-new-rules/
83 European Commision, European Union, National long-term strategies (2020), available at https://commission.europa.eu/energy-climate-change-environment/implementation-eu-countries/energy-and-climate-governance-and-reporting/national-long-term-strategies_en
84 Official Jorunal of the European Union, Consolidated Version of the Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union, Art.194. Available at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:12012E/TXT&from=EN (Oct. 26, 2012
85 Official Jorunal of the European Union, Consolidated Version of the Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union, Art.122. Available at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:12012E/TXT&from=EN (Oct. 26, 2012
86 Official Jorunal of the European Union, Consolidated Version of the Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union, Art.170-172. Available at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:12012E/TXT&from=EN (Oct. 26, 2012
87 Official Jorunal of the European Union, Consolidated Version of the Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union, Art.114. Available at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:12012E/TXT&from=EN (Oct. 26, 2012
88 Official Jorunal of the European Union, Consolidated Version of the Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union, Art.216-218. Available at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:12012E/TXT&from=EN (Oct. 26, 2012
89 Official Jorunal of the European Union, Consolidated Version of the Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union, Prot. 37. Available at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:12012E/TXT&from=EN (Oct. 26, 2012
90 European Commision on behalf the European Union and its members,European Union, Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of the European Union Towards The Climate Agreement of Paris 2015. (2020), available at https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/NDC/2022-06/EU_NDC_Submission_December%202020.pdf
91 International Energy Agency,  Austria 2020 Energy Policy Review (2020), available at https://iea.blob.core.windows.net/assets/ea419c67-4847-4a22-905a-d3ef66b848ba/Austria_2020_Energy_Policy_Review.pdf
92 Federal Ministry for Sustainability and Tourism, Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology, Austrian Climate and Energy Strategy # Mission 2030 (2018), available at https://gruenstattgrau.at/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/mission2030_oe_climatestrategy_ua.pdf
93 REPUBLIK ÖSTERREICH, Aus Verantwortung für Österreich. Regierungsprogramm 2020–2024 (2020), available at https://www.dievolkspartei.at/Download/Regierungsprogramm_2020.pdf
94 Klima- und Energiefonds,  Flagship region Energy (2018), available at https://www.vorzeigeregion-energie.at/wp-content/uploads/Folder-Vorzeigeregion-EN-screen-RZ.pdf
95 FEDERAL MINISTRY FOR SUSTAINABILITY AND TOURISM, Integrated National Energy and Climate Plan for Austria, available at https://cdn.climatepolicyradar.org/navigator/AUT/2019/integrated-national-energy-and-climate-plan-for-austria_995902ed589ead676bd1782a5f17a514.pdf
96 FEDERAL MINISTRY FOR TRANSPORT, INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY,Just Transition Aktionsplan Aus- und Weiterbildung (2023), available at https://www.refernet.at/images/ergaenzende_Infos/Publikationen_extern/Just-Transition_Aktionsplan_UA.pdf
97 FEDERAL MINISTRY REPUBLIC OF AUSTRIA, SUSTAINABILITY AND TOURISM, Long-Term Strategy 2050 – Austria (2019), available at https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/resource/LTS1_Austria.pdf
98 International Trade Organization Website, Bulgaria – Country Commercial Guide, Energy,Last published date: Sep.11, 2022, https://www.trade.gov/country-commercial-guides/bulgaria-energy
99 See Id.
100 European Commission on behalf the European Union and its members, Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of the European Union Towards The Climate Agreement of Paris 2015. (2020), available at https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/NDC/2022-06/EU_NDC_Submission_December%202020.pdf
101 See Id. p.5
102 European Climate Foundation, EU leaders set more ambitious emissions reductions target for 2030 (Dec.1st, 2021), available at https://europeanclimate.org/stories/eu-leaders-set-more-ambitious-emissions-reductions-target-for-2030/
103 U.S. Department of State, 2023 Investment Climate Statements: Bulgaria (2023), available at https://www.state.gov/reports/2023-investment-climate-statements/bulgaria/
104 See Id.
105 Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope Bulgaria, available at https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/bg/
106 The European Parliament and the Council of The European Union, Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 (2018), 5, available at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32018R1999&from=EN
107 Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Bulgaria, Integrated Energy and Climate Plan of the Republic of Bulgaria 2021-2030. (2019), 58,  available at https://cdn.climatepolicyradar.org/navigator/BGR/2019/integrated-national-energy-and-climate-plan-for-bulgaria_cd010a05e1f9b0c9f732eca10482ae5d.pdf
108 Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Bulgaria, National Energy Efficiency Action 2014-2020 (2014), 7, 49-57, available at https://energy.ec.europa.eu/system/files/2014-12/NEEAPBulgaria_en_0.pdf
109 Angel Nikolaev et al., Development and assessment of renewable energy policy scenarios by 2030 for Bulgaria, Renewable Energy (2017), Pages 792-802, available at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148117303920?via%3Dihub
110 Enerdata, Bulgaria – Institutions and Energy Policy – Renewables – FiTs (feed-in-tariffs), available at https://www.enerdata.net/bulgaria-institutions-and-energy-policy-renewables-fits-feed-tariffs.html (last visited Nov. 17, 2023
111 Angel Nikolaev et al., supra note 4, at 794
112 Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope Bulgaria (2022) , available at  https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/bg/
113 Republic of Bulgaria, Energy from Renewable Sources Act (2011), available at https://cdn.climatepolicyradar.org/navigator/BGR/2013/energy-from-renewable-sources-act_c96eeb3092eb3a24feeb0b28aec702e6.pdf
114 See Id.
115 Republic of Bulgaria, Energy Act (2013), available at https://www.minfin.bg/upload/39583/Energy_Act.pdf
116 Id.
117 Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope Bulgaria (2022), available at  https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/bg/ 
118 Kostadin Sirleshtov, Dimitar Zwiatkow and Borislava Piperkova,CMS Law Tax, Bulgaria, Renewable Energy Guide (2020), p. 35, available at https://cms.law/en/media/expert-guides/files-for-expert-guides/renewables-guide-2020
119 Gor Todorovic, Energy bill to liberalize wholesale power market introduce energy communities, Balkan Green Energy News (2023), available at https://balkangreenenergynews.com/bulgarias-energy-bill-to-liberalize-wholesale-power-market-introduce-energy-communities/
120 International Energy Agency, Country Profile: Croatia (2023), available at https://www.iea.org/countries/croatia (last visited Nov. 27, 2023
121 Id.
122 Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope Croatia (2022), available at https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/hr/ (last visited Nov. 27, 2023
123 Id.
124 Id.
125 European Investment Bank, Powering Croatia (2023), available at https://www.eib.org/en/stories/energy-croatia-greener-supply-zagreb (last visited Nov. 27, 2023
126 The Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund (EPEEF), Activities of the Fund (2023), available at https://www.fzoeu.hr/en/activities-of-the-fund/1325 (last visited Nov. 27, 2023
127 Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope Denmark (2022), available at https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/dk/ (last visited Nov. 24, 2023)
128 Id.
129 International Energy Agency, Denmark (2023), available at https://www.iea.org/countries/denmark (last visited Nov. 24, 2023)
130 Id.
131 Id.
132 Jonas Ekblom, Denmark calls for EU strategy to phase out diesel and petrol cars from 2030 (2019), Reuters, available at https://www.reuters.com/article/us-eu-autos-denmark-idUSKBN1WJ1YW/#:~:text=Denmark%20made%20headlines%20in%20October,would%20have%20breached%20EU%20rules. (last visited Nov. 24, 2023)
133 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Green Thinking: Pioneers in clean energy, Denmark.dk, available at https://denmark.dk/innovation-and-design/clean-energy (last visited Nov. 24, 2023)
134 International Energy Agency, Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Denmark 2017 Review (2017), available at https://www.iea.org/countries/denmark (last visited Nov. 24, 2023)
135 International Energy Agency, Executive summary of Energy Policy Review Finland (2023), available at https://www.iea.org/reports/finland-2023/executive-summary (last visited Nov. 24, 2023
136 Id.
137 Id.
138 International Energy Agency, Finland’s nuclear and renewable power strengths provide a solid foundation for reaching its ambitious climate targets (2023), available at https://www.iea.org/news/finland-s-nuclear-and-renewable-power-strengths-provide-a-solid-foundation-for-reaching-its-ambitious-climate-targets-iea-review-says (last visited Nov. 24, 2023
139 Id.
140 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Fossil Fuel Support Country Note (2020), 1, available at https://stats.oecd.org/fileview2.aspx?IDFile=0fa7ed05-4b24-4a7e-813a-f68651dc9b5f
141 Id.
142 International Trade Administration, Finland, country commercial guide (2023), available at https://www.trade.gov/country-commercial-guides/finland-energy (last visited Nov. 24, 2023
143 Saila Nieminen, et. al., Finland’s Energy Transition: IEA’s Perspective on the 2023 Policy Review (2023), Young leaders in Energy Sustainability (YES-Europe), available at https://yeseurope.org/finlands-energy-transition-ieas-perspective-on-the-2023-policy-review/
144 International Energy Agency, France needs to invest more in energy efficiency, renewables and nuclear to put itself on track for net zero by 2050, IEA policy review says (2021), available at https://www.iea.org/news/france-needs-to-invest-more-in-energy-efficiency-renewables-and-nuclear-to-put-itself-on-track-for-net-zero-by-2050-iea-policy-review-says
145 International Energy Agency, France 2021: Executive Summary (2021), available at https://www.iea.org/reports/france-2021/executive-summary
146 France Nature Environmental, Renewable Energies Acceleration Act: what has been achieved? , available at https://fne.asso.fr/actualites/loi-d-acceleration-des-energies-renouvelables-quel-bilan (last visited Nov. 17, 2023
147 Id.
148 European Commission on behalf the European Union And Its Members, European Union, Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of the European Union Towards The Climate Agreement of Paris 2015 (2020), available at https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/NDC/2022-06/EU_NDC_Submission_December%202020.pdf
149 Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope: France (2022), available at https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/fr/
150 Resources for the Future, German Just Transition: A Review of Public Policies to Assist German Coal Communities in Transition (Nov. 2021), https://media.rff.org/documents/21-13-Nov-22.pdf.
151 Elke Dahlbeck et al., Analysis of the historical structural change in the German hard coal mining Ruhr area 30 (2021), https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/1410/publikationen/2021-12-08_cc_30-2021_case-study_analysis_historical_structural_change_ruhr_area.pdf.
152 Id. at 16.
153 Id. at 56.
154 Id.
155 Id. at 57
156 Id. at 58.
157 Id.
158 Id.
159 Id. at 53, 59.
160 Id. at 16, 28
161 Id. at 60.
162 Id.
163 Id.
164 Id. at 60-61.
165 Id. at 63-64.
166 Id. at 65.
167 Id. at 66.
168 Id.
169 Anmol Arora and Heike Schroeder, How to avoid unjust energy transitions: insights from the Ruhr region, 12 Energy, Sustainability, and Society (2022.).
170 Commission on Growth, Structural Change and Employment [Kommission „Wachstum, Strukturwandel und Beschäftigung”], Final Report [Abschlussbericht] (January 2019), https://institutdelors.eu/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/PP270_Energiewende_Delair-PellerinCarlin_EN.pdf.
171 Act to Reduce and End Coal-Powered Energy and Amend Other Laws (Coal Phase-Out Act) [Gesetz zur Reduzierung und zur Beendigung der Kohleverstromung und zur Änderung weiterer Gesetze (Kohleausstiegsgesetz)] (August 8, 2020), https://perma.cc/GQR7-JM8G.
172 Germany: Law on Phasing-Out Coal-Powered Energy by 2038 Enters into Force, Lib. of Cong., Aug. 31, 2020.
173 Essen becomes the European Green Capital for 2017, European Comm’n (Jan. 20, 2017), https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_17_85.
174 Essen: A Beacon of City Climate Action, U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (Jan. 11, 2017), https://unfccc.int/news/essen-a-beacon-of-city-climate-action.
175 Essen becomes the European Green Capital for 2017, European Comm’n (Jan. 20, 2017), https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_17_85.
176 European Comm’n, Expert Panel – Technical Assessment Synopsis Report: European Green Capital Award 2017 (Apr. 2015), https://ec.europa.eu/environment/europeangreencapital/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/EGCA-2017-Technical-Assessment-Synopsis-Report.pdf.
177 Chiara Robotti, European Investment Bank, A blueprint for turning a city green (Mar. 3, 2017), https://www.eib.org/en/stories/a-blueprint-for-turning-a-city-green#.
178 Id.
179 International Energy Agency, Greece must build on its successes in reducing fossil fuel dependence, IEA report says, https://www.iea.org/news/greece-must-build-on-its-successes-in-reducing-fossil-fuel-dependence-iea-report-says (last visited Nov. 13, 2023)
180 Id.
181 Grece Hebdo, Climat: La Grèce à la COP 27 et L’initiative “Greco Islands”, https://www.grecehebdo.gr/actualites/politique/2899-la-gr%C3%A8ce-%C3%A0-la-cop-27-sur-le-climat-l%E2%80%99initiative-%E2%80%9Cgreco-islands%E2%80%9D#:~:text=La%20Gr%C3%A8ce%20a%20d%C3%A9j%C3%A0%20vot%C3%A9,80%20%25%20d%27ici%202040  (last visited Nov 17, 2023
182 Id.
183 Id.
184 Harry Aposporis, Greece boosts 2030 renewable energy target by 9 GW, adds hydrogen (published Jan.18, 2023) https://balkangreenenergynews.com/greece-boosts-2030-renewable-energy-target-by-9-gw-adds-hydrogen/
185 Id.
186 International Trade Administration, (Nov.26,2022) https://www.trade.gov/country-commercial-guides/italy-natural-gas-renewable-energy#:~:text=In%20the%20National%20Resilience%20and,%25%E2%80%93100%25%20by%202050.
187 See Id.
188 Olivier Tosseri, L’Italie veut concentrer les aides européennes sur le secteur de l’énergie, Les Echos, (Feb.7,2023) https://www.lesechos.fr/monde/europe/litalie-veut-concentrer-les-aides-europeennes-sur-le-secteur-de-lenergie-1904407 
189 French Ministry of Economy, Finance, and Industrial and Digital Sovereignty, Italy Climate & Energy (Apr.15,2021) https://www.tresor.economie.gouv.fr/Pays/IT/climat-et-energie#:~:text=Concernant%20la%20transition%20%C3%A9nerg%C3%A9tique%2C%20le,la%20cible%20fix%C3%A9e%20est%2020%25.
190 Chambers and Partners, Alternative Energy & Power 2023, https://practiceguides.chambers.com/practice-guides/alternative-energy-power-2023/norway/trends-and-developments (last visited Nov. 13, 2023
191 International Energy Agency, Executive Summary (2022), https://www.iea.org/reports/norway-2022/executive-summary (last visited Nov. 13, 2023
192 Id.
193 Id.
194 Equinor, The world’s largest floating offshore wind farm officially openedhttps://www.equinor.com/news/20230823-hywind-tampen-officially-opened (last visited Nov. 13, 2023)
195 Id.
196 Sergio Goncalves, Portugal to speed up switch to renewable power in wake of Ukraine war, Reuters (Apr. 1, 2022),https://www.reuters.com/business/sustainable-business/portugal-speed-up-switch-renewable-power-wake-ukraine-war-2022-04-01/ 
197 Marie Charrel, Portugal to speed up switch to renewable power in wake of Ukraine war, Le monde (published Nov. 22, 2022) https://www.lemonde.fr/en/economy/article/2022/11/22/in-portugal-the-energy-crisis-is-putting-livelihoods-at-stake
198 Euronews Green, Solar, €49 train tickets and home energy efficiency: Why Portugal is our Green Country of the Month, (published Jul.31,2023 https://www.euronews.com/green/2023/07/31/solar-49-train-tickets-and-home-energy-efficiency-why-portugal-is-our-green-country-of-the 
199 Id
200 Ylenia Gostoli, Energy crisis accelerates Romania’s transition to renewables, TRT World, https://www.trtworld.com/magazine/energy-crisis-accelerates-romania-s-transition-to-renewables-59931 
201 Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Website https://www.mae.ro/en/node/2160 (Last updated, Mar. 2021)
202 Pavel Sinka, Romania Aims for Energy Independence in Response to War in Ukraine, Euractiv, https://www.euractiv.fr/section/energie-climat/news/la-roumanie-vise-lindependance-energetique-en-reaction-a-la-guerre-en-ukraine/
203 See Supra note 1
204  Mihajlo Vujasin, Romania plans to expand coal mine over 100 hectares of forests, Balkan Green Energy News, (Jan.16, 2023) https://balkangreenenergynews.com/romania-plans-to-expand-coal-mine-over-100-hectares-of-forests/ 
205 Id.
206 https://www.trade.gov/country-commercial-guides/slovenia-energy#:~:text=Slovenia%20is%20seeking%20to%20gradually,of%20active%20electricity%2Ddistribution%20networks.
207 European commission on behalf the European Union and its members, European Union, Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of the European Union Towards The Climate Agreement of Paris 2015 (2020), available at https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/NDC/2022-06/EU_NDC_Submission_December%202020.pdf
208 Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Slovenia, Integrated Energy and Climate Plan of the Republic of Slovenia 2021-2030. (2020), available at p. 21 https://energy.ec.europa.eu/system/files/2020-06/si_final_necp_main_en_0.pdf
209 European Commission, Summary of the Commission assessment of the draft National Energy and Climate Plan 2021-2030. (2020), available at p.2 https://energy.ec.europa.eu/system/files/2019-06/necp_factsheet_si_final_0.pdf ; Integrated Energy and Climate Plan of the Republic of Slovenia 2021-2030, available at p.33
210 Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Slovenia, Integrated Energy and Climate Plan of the Republic of Slovenia 2021-2030. (2020), available at https://energy.ec.europa.eu/system/files/2020-06/si_final_necp_main_en_0.pdf
211 European Commission, Summary of the Commission assessment of the draft National Energy and Climate Plan 2021-2030. (2020), available at https://energy.ec.europa.eu/system/files/2019-06/necp_factsheet_si_final_0.pdf
212 Id. at 2
213 EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, DIRECTIVE 2012/27/EU On Energy Efficiency Target (2012), available at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:315:0001:0056:en:PDF
214 Id. at 13
215 Id. at 15
216 Id. at 1
217 International Energy Agency, Slovenia Net-Metering System (Uredbo o samooskrbi z elektricno energijo iz obnovljivih virov energije) (2015), available at https://www.iea.org/policies/5958-slovenia-net-metering-system-uredbo-o-samooskrbi-z-elektricno-energijo-iz-obnovljivih-virov-energije
218 Id.
219 Id.
220 Id.
221 Republic of Slovenia, Slovenia Net-Metering System (2015), available at http://www.pisrs.si/Pis.web/pregledPredpisa?id=URED7867
222 European Commission on behalf of the European Union and its members, European Union, Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of the European Union Towards The Climate Agreement of Paris 2015 (2020), 6-8, available at https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/NDC/2022-06/EU_NDC_Submission_December%202020.pdf. Haga clic o pulse si confía en este vínculo." href="https://nam10.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Funfccc.int%2Fsites%2Fdefault%2Ffiles%2FNDC%2F2022-06%2FEU_NDC_Submission_December%25202020.pdf&data=05%7C01%7Cjjo5503%40psu.edu%7Cf1e45555c5994581ff9308dbf0469a7b%7C7cf48d453ddb4389a9c1c115526eb52e%7C0%7C0%7C638367958259215682%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000%7C%7C%7C&sdata=R%2BRFqco3hdayR5kMaeKsshrVNR%2BjhpiNppoeXCAcatQ%3D&reserved=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" data-auth="Verified" data-linkindex="1">https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/NDC/2022-06/EU_NDC_Submission_December%202020.pdf 
223 International Energy Agency, Spain’s extensive policy plans set to help underpin a successful energy transition powered by renewables and efficiency (2021), available at https://www.iea.org/news/spain-s-extensive-policy-plans-set-to-help-underpin-a-successful-energy-transition-powered-by-renewables-and-efficiency. Haga clic o pulse si confía en este vínculo." href="https://nam10.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.iea.org%2Fnews%2Fspain-s-extensive-policy-plans-set-to-help-underpin-a-successful-energy-transition-powered-by-renewables-and-efficiency&data=05%7C01%7Cjjo5503%40psu.edu%7Cf1e45555c5994581ff9308dbf0469a7b%7C7cf48d453ddb4389a9c1c115526eb52e%7C0%7C0%7C638367958259222659%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000%7C%7C%7C&sdata=%2Bh2s1Ds3mDpd8nTJdsplubOjuYih1t5AbdTnkFjZtfY%3D&reserved=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" data-auth="Verified" data-linkindex="2">https://www.iea.org/news/spain-s-extensive-policy-plans-set-to-help-underpin-a-successful-energy-transition-powered-by-renewables-and-efficiency (last visited Nov. 24, 2023) 
224 Spanish Presidency of the Council of the European Union, Spain, a benchmark in renewable energies, is in the throes of far-reaching reforms to lead the green transition in the EU (2023), available at https://spanish-presidency.consilium.europa.eu/en/news/spain-renewable-energies-green-transition-eu/. Haga clic o pulse si confía en este vínculo." href="https://nam10.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fspanish-presidency.consilium.europa.eu%2Fen%2Fnews%2Fspain-renewable-energies-green-transition-eu%2F&data=05%7C01%7Cjjo5503%40psu.edu%7Cf1e45555c5994581ff9308dbf0469a7b%7C7cf48d453ddb4389a9c1c115526eb52e%7C0%7C0%7C638367958259229233%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000%7C%7C%7C&sdata=88PgdMb8yH79BOxNXLaWjT70FOna2vdwWLw8kpAPkR8%3D&reserved=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" data-auth="Verified" data-linkindex="3">https://spanish-presidency.consilium.europa.eu/en/news/spain-renewable-energies-green-transition-eu/ (last visited Nov. 24, 2023)
225 Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope Spain (2022), available at https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/es/. Haga clic o pulse si confía en este vínculo." href="https://nam10.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.global-climatescope.org%2Fmarkets%2Fes%2F&data=05%7C01%7Cjjo5503%40psu.edu%7Cf1e45555c5994581ff9308dbf0469a7b%7C7cf48d453ddb4389a9c1c115526eb52e%7C0%7C0%7C638367958259236434%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000%7C%7C%7C&sdata=xUbd36%2FPRbsXx%2F5JA6SauPbIt64j4%2Bh8Uxnh2McHB94%3D&reserved=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" data-auth="Verified" data-linkindex="4">https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/es/ (last visited Nov. 24, 2023
226 Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope Spain (2022), available at https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/es/. Haga clic o pulse si confía en este vínculo." href="https://nam10.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.global-climatescope.org%2Fmarkets%2Fes%2F&data=05%7C01%7Cjjo5503%40psu.edu%7Cf1e45555c5994581ff9308dbf0469a7b%7C7cf48d453ddb4389a9c1c115526eb52e%7C0%7C0%7C638367958259243424%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000%7C%7C%7C&sdata=2PS6w07SWzDvvY075wObpmG3v5LN25QDBJBLlqHeY7Y%3D&reserved=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" data-auth="Verified" data-linkindex="5">https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/es/ (last visited Nov. 24, 2023
227 Id.
228 Id.
229 Id.
230 Bloomberg NEF, supra note 1
231 Id.
232 Id.
233 Id.
234 Bloomberg NEF, supra note 1
235 Id.
236 Antonio Morales, Jose Moran, Guadalupe Mairata, Spain: Spain formalizes its commitment to energy transition, Baker McKenzie, (2021), available at https://insightplus.bakermckenzie.com/bm/projects/spain-spain-formalizes-its-commitment-to-energy-transition#:~:text=The%20law%20signifies%20Spain's%20commitment,to%20generate%2074%25%20of%20the. Haga clic o pulse si confía en este vínculo." href="https://nam10.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Finsightplus.bakermckenzie.com%2Fbm%2Fprojects%2Fspain-spain-formalizes-its-commitment-to-energy-transition%23%3A~%3Atext%3DThe%2520law%2520signifies%2520Spain%27s%2520commitment%2Cto%2520generate%252074%2525%2520of%2520the&data=05%7C01%7Cjjo5503%40psu.edu%7Cf1e45555c5994581ff9308dbf0469a7b%7C7cf48d453ddb4389a9c1c115526eb52e%7C0%7C0%7C638367958259263958%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000%7C%7C%7C&sdata=vYDpl83meeooTOi9mpx%2FnrG6Ll8KFZBh%2F4wNk9jQgeU%3D&reserved=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" data-auth="Verified" data-linkindex="8">https://insightplus.bakermckenzie.com/bm/projects/spain-spain-formalizes-its-commitment-to-energy-transition#:~:text=The%20law%20signifies%20Spain’s%20commitment,to%20generate%2074%25%20of%20the (last visited Nov. 24, 2023
237 Id.
238 Id.
239 Id.
240 Ministry of Energy Transition and Demographic Challenge of Spain, Spain, towards a just energy transition, Just Transition Institute Executive Report,(2022), 4-5, available at https://www.transicionjusta.gob.es/Documents/Noticias/common/220707_Spain_JustTransition.pdf
241 Ministry of Energy Transition and Demographic Challenge of Spain, Long Tem Decarbonization Strategy 2050 (2020), 5-6, available at  https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/resource/LTS1_Spain_0.pdf. Haga clic o pulse si confía en este vínculo." href="https://nam10.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Funfccc.int%2Fsites%2Fdefault%2Ffiles%2Fresource%2FLTS1_Spain_0.pdf&data=05%7C01%7Cjjo5503%40psu.edu%7C325baa29e56d4ea1fe3f08dbe6ba0fb6%7C7cf48d453ddb4389a9c1c115526eb52e%7C0%7C0%7C638357459020458627%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000%7C%7C%7C&sdata=xGPQwP63rbcibmlJs%2BhAakITjCJ8i9FWWm2TCb84sPQ%3D&reserved=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" data-auth="NotApplicable" data-linkindex="9" data-loopstyle="linkonly">https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/resource/LTS1_Spain_0.pdf (last visited Nov. 24, 2023
242 Id.
243 International Energy Agency, “Sweden is a leader in the energy transition, according to latest IEA country review”,available at https://www.iea.org/news/sweden-is-a-leader-in-the-energy-transition-according-to-latest-iea-country-review (April 09, 2019)
244 See Id.
245 Id.
246 International Energy Agency, Energy Policy Review Sweden 2019, available at https://www.iea.org/reports/energy-policies-of-iea-countries-sweden-2019-review (April, 2019)
247 Ministry of Climate and Enterprise,”Sweden’s climate policy framework”, Government Offices of Sweden(Mar.https://www.government.se/articles/2021/03/swedens-climate-policy-framework/
248 Charlotte Elton, “Sweden rebuked for ‘backwards’ climate policy despite wind power record”, Euronews available at https://www.euronews.com/green/2023/03/28/sweden-set-a-record-for-wind-energy-in-february-are-other-eu-countries-lagging-behind#:~:text=Sweden%20has%20ambitious%20clean%20energy,centre%2Dright%20three%20party%20alliance. (Last Updated Mar. 28, 2023)
249 See Id.
250 World Resources Institute, Australia’s Latrobe Valley: Coordinating Private Companies to Redeploy Power Plant Workers (Apr. 1, 2021), available at https://www.wri.org/update/australias-latrobe-valley-coordinating-private-companies-redeploy-power-plant-workers
251 John Wiseman et al., After the Hazelwood coal fired power station closure: Latrobe Valley regional transition policies and outcomes 2017-2020, Australian National University, Crawford School of Public Policy, CCEP Working Paper 2010, p.13  (Nov. 2020), https://ccep.crawford.anu.edu.au/sites/default/files/publication/ccep_crawford_anu_edu_au/2020-11/ccep20-10_wiseman_workman_fastenrath_jotzo_after_hazelwood.pdf, quoting Karen Cain, Redefining the role of government in community transition, Australian-German Climate and Energy College seminar, http://climatecollege.unimelb.edu.au/seminar/re-defining-role-government-agencies[1]community-transition-%E2%80%94-latrobe-valley-authority-case .
252 See Supra note
253 Latrobe Valley Authority, Latrobe Valley Community Report: Transitioning to a strong future November 2016-November 2019 at 4 (Dec. 2019), available at https://lva.vic.gov.au/news/community-report-released-today/12770-DJPR-RRV-LVA-community-report_v7a-web-ready2.pdf
254 See Id. at 5.
255 Calla Wahlquist, Hazelwood workers hang up their hats as power station closes, The Guardian (Mar. 31, 2017), https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2017/mar/31/hazelwood-workers-hang-up-their-hats-as-power-station-closes.
256 Jarrod Whittaker, Latrobe Valley workers face legacy of unstable work two years after Hazelwood closure, ABC News (June 21, 2019), https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-06-22/hazelwood-workers-in-unstable-work-two-years-on/11235112
257 See Supra note, at 3.
258 China to reallocate 500,000 coal and steel workers in 2017: labor minister, Reuters (Mar. 1, 2017), https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-economy-employment/china-to-reallocate-500000-coal-and-steel-workers-in-2017-labor-minister-idUSKBN1683AZ .
259 Richard Bridle et al., International Institute for Sustainable Development, At the Crossroads: Balancing the financial and social costs of coal transition in China 4 (2017), https://www.iisd.org/system/files/publications/crossroads-balancing-financial-social-costs-coal-transition-china.pdf .
260 China sets up 100 billion yuan fund to cover layoffs in coal, steel sectors, Reuters (Feb. 29, 2016), https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-economy-employment-fund-idINKCN0W20JT .
261 The Institute of Strategic Studies of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels, Energy transition, national strategies, and oil companies: what are the impacts for workers? 50 (Nov. 2020), https://www.industriall-union.org/sites/default/files/uploads/documents/2021/Energy/sr_energy_transition_en_v13.pdf .
262 Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security of the People’s Republic of China, How to View China’s Employment Situation [如何看待我国就业形势], referencing article originally published on the Qiushi website (Jan. 2, 2020), http://www.mohrss.gov.cn/SYrlzyhshbzb/dongtaixinwen/buneiyaowen/202001/t20200102_350530.html .
263 Sylvia He et al., Shrinking cities and resource-based economy: The economic restructuring in China’s mining cities, 60 Cities 75 at 5 (2017), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313148240_Shrinking_cities_and_resource-based_economy_The_economic_restructuring_in_China’s_mining_cities .
264 Id. at 6-12.
265 Id. at 7.
266 Id. at 8-9.
267 Id. at 9.
268 Id. at 10.
269 Id.
270 Neil Quilliam & Jessica Obeid, How to unlock the potential of Jordan’s renewable energy sector, Kalam,(2023), https://kalam.chathamhouse.org/articles/how-to-unlock-the-potential-of-jordans-renewable-energy-sector/ (last visited Dec. 7, 2023
271 Id.
272 Jordan Times, Jordan leads Arab world in renewable energy production, says Kharabsheh (2023), https://jordantimes.com/news/local/jordan-leads-arab-world-renewable-energy-production-says-kharabsheh
273 The World Bank, Two New Projects to Foster Climate Responsive Investments for Growth and Job Creation and to Support Jordan’s Electricity Sector Efficiency, The World Bank Press Release, (2023), available at https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2023/04/17/two-new-projects-to-foster-climate-responsive-investments-for-growth-and-job-creation-and-to-support-jordan-s-electricit
274 The Jordanian German Energy Partnership Website, available at https://www.energy-jordan-germany.org/energy-partnership/ (last visited Dec. 7, 2023
275 Neil Quilliam & Jessica Obeid, supra note 1
276 Id.
277 Ahmad A. Salah, Mohammad M. Shalby & Firas Basim Ismail, The status and potential of renewable energy development in Jordan: exploring challenges and opportunities, Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy, 19:1, 7, (2023), DOI: 10.1080/15487733.2023.2212517
278 Energy & Utilities, Jordan a rising star in renewable power and exports, (2023), https://energy-utilities.com/jordan-a-rising-star-in-renewable-power-and-news121608.html (last visited Dec. 07, 2023
279 KUWAIT INSTITUTE FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, Kuwait Energy Outlook (2022), available at https://www.kisr.edu.kw/en/gi/1/details/
280 BLOOMBERG NEF, Climatescope: Kuwait (2022), available at https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/kw/
281 GOVERNMENT OF KUWAIT, Nationally Determined Contribution (2021), available at https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/NDC/2022-06/Kuwait%20updating%20the%20first%20NDC-arabic.pdf
282 Id. at 17.
283 Id. at 17.
284 Id. at 16.
285 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY, Renewable Energy Building and Site Integration (2021), available at https://www.iea.org/policies/5542-renewable-energy-building-and-site-integration
286 KUWAIT INSTITUTE FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, Sustainable Energy, Building Materials, and Infrastructure (2023), available at https://www.kisr.edu.kw/en/research-centers/energy-building/
287 Id.
288 NTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY, Innovative Renewable Energy Research Program (2021), available at https://www.iea.org/policies/5539-innovative-renewable-energy-research-program
289 Id.
290 KUWAIT INSTITUTE FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, About us (2023), available at https://www.kisr.edu.kw/en/discover-kisr/about-us/
291 Id.
292 Llewellyn King, Morocco Wants To Be A ‘Destination’ For Renewable Energy, Forbes Magazine, (Aug.1, 2022) https://www.forbes.com/sites/llewellynking/2022/08/01/morocco-wants-to-be-a-destination-for-renewable-energy/?sh=7e783cb73f06 
293 See Id.
294 See Id.
295 See Id.
296 Jihane Rahhou, Report: Morocco’s 2030 Green Energy Target Is ‘Most Credible’ in MENA , (Sep. 18, 2023)https://www.moroccoworldnews.com/2023/09/357760/report-moroccos-2030-green-energy-target-is-most-credible-in-mena 
297 International Energy Agency, Countries: Oman (2023), available at https://www.iea.org/countries/oman
298 Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope: Oman (2023), available at https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/om/
299 International Energy Agency, National Strategy for an Orderly Transition to Net Zero (2023), available at https://www.iea.org/policies/17268-national-strategy-for-an-orderly-transition-to-net-zero
300 Ministry Of Energy and Mines Of Oman, The Sultanate of Oman´s National Strategy for an Orderly Transition to Net Zero, p.5 (2022), available at https://www.ea.gov.om/media/aaslyc3l/oman-net-zero-report-2022_screen.pdf
301 International Energy Agency, Oman´s Second Nationally Determined Contribution (2023), available at https://www.iea.org/policies/15254-omans-second-nationally-determined-contribution
302 Id. 
303 Id.
304 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Oman´s Second Nationally Determined Contribution (2021), available at https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/NDC/2022-06/Second%20NDC%20Report%20Oman.pdf
305 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Oman´s Second Nationally Determined Contribution, at 7 (2021), available at https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/NDC/2022-06/Second%20NDC%20Report%20Oman.pdf
306 Id. at 3
307 Id. at 10
308 Oman´s Second Nationally Determined Contribution, supra note 7, at 10.
309 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY, Renewables 2025 Target (2023), available at https://www.iea.org/policies/17271-renewables-2025-target
310 OMAN SUSTAINABILITY WEEK, Oman Targets 3,050 Mw of Renewables By 2025 (2020), available at https://www.omansustainabilityweek.com/LatestUpdate2021.aspx?LatestUpdate=pressRe3
311 GOVERNMENT OF OMAN, Oman Vision 2040 (2021), available at https://www.mof.gov.om/pdf/Vision_Documents_En.pdf
312 Id. at 39.
313 Id. at 8.
314 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY, Royal Decree No. 10/2023 (2023), available at https://www.iea.org/policies/17269-royal-decree-no-102023
315 OMAN NEWS AGENCY, HM The Sultan Issues Two Royal Decrees (2023), available at https://omannews.gov.om/topics/en/102/show/111878#:~:text=Two%20Royal%20Decrees-,Muscat%2C%2016%20Feb%20(ONA)%20%E2%80%94%2D%20His%20Majesty%20Sultan,energy%20and%20clean%20hydrogen%20projects .
316 Dentons, Qatar’s plans for renewable energy (2023), available at https://www.dentons.com/en/insights/alerts/2023/may/10/qatars-plans-for-renewable-energy (last visited Dec. 08, 2023
317 Id.
318 International Trade Administration, Qatar Energy Greenhouse Gas (Ghg) Emissions Reductions And Sustainability Initiatives (2022), available at https://www.trade.gov/market-intelligence/qatar-energy-greenhouse-gas-ghg-emissions-reductions-and-sustainability (last visited Dec. 08, 2023
319 Government Communications office, Environment and Sustainability (2022), available at https://www.gco.gov.qa/en/focus/environment-and-sustainability/ (last visited Dec. 07, 2023
320 International Trade Administration, supra note 3.
321 Dentons, supra note 1.