Governments with an energy transition agency, office, or institution

United States

California. The California Energy Commission is an established governmental agency that covers multiple aspects of energy transitions.[1]California Code, Public Resources Code – PRC § 25000, available at … Continue reading

Colorado. The Office of Just Transition in the Colorado Department of Labor was formed in 2019 and administers education and training programs to former coal workers.[2]Colorado Official State Web Portal, HB19-1314 – Just Transition From Coal-based Electrical Energy Economy (2019), available at … Continue reading

Massachusetts. The Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs was created to analyze energy transition issues and make recommendations.[3]Massachusetts Admisnistration of the government, executive and administrative officers of the commonwealth, available at  Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 21A et seq.

Michigan. The Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy (EGLE), through the Office of Climate and Energy, coordinates activities of state departments and agencies on climate response and provides recommendations to state and local governments.[4]Executive Directive 2020 – 10.

Minnesota. H.F. 6 is the 2021 omnibus commerce and energy finance policy. It creates the Energy Transition Office to establish transition programs, economic initiatives, and transition policies for communities and workers impacted by fossil fuel-based power plant closures and plant development requirements. Introduced and enacted in June 2021 [5]H.F. 6, 92d Leg. (Minn. 2021) (“Omnibus commerce, climate, and energy finance bill”), available at https://www.revisor.mn.gov/bills/bill.php?b=House&f=HF6&ssn=1&y=2021 (last visited … Continue reading)

Montana. The purpose of the Montana Climate Solutions Council is to provide recommendations to the governor, legislature, and citizens of Montana on strategies to reduce GHG emissions, prepare the state for climate impacts, foster innovation across Montana’s economy, and address the needs of communities in transition through appropriate economic development and workforce strategies.[6]Executive Order No. 8-2019.

New Mexico. The Energy Transition Act established the New Mexico Renewable Energy Transmission Authority to develop new transmission and energy storage projects to promote the development of renewable energy resources in New Mexico. The act also sets a statewide renewable energy standard, establishes zero-carbon resources standards for investors, and provides tens of millions of dollars of economic and workforce support for communities impacted by coal plant closures.[7] Energy Transition Act, available at S.B. 0489

New York. New York’s 2023-2024 state budget incorporates a number of key provisions originally proposed in an earlier bill known as the Build Public Renewables Act, which was not enacted. [8]New York State Build Public Renewables Act, S.B S6453C, Reg. Sess. (Ny. 2021),  https://www.nysenate.gov/legislation/bills/2021/S6453

These provisions will allow the New York Power Authority (NYPA) to build, own and operate the utility-scale renewable projects needed through strategic planning to fill gaps left by the private sector, as well as phase out some of the dirtiest peaker plants in New York City by 2030. [9]New York Assembly Website,”Assemblymember Carroll Announces His Major Climate Change Legislation – The Build Public Renewables Act Included in the State’s Final Budget”(May 2, 2023), … Continue reading

Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania’s Climate Change Act of 2008[10] Pennsylvania Climate Change Act of 2008, Pub. L. 935, No.70 (2008), https://www.legis.state.pa.us/cfdocs/legis/li/uconsCheck.cfm?yr=2008&sessInd=0&act=70 requires the Department of Environmental Protection (“DEP”) to assess the potential impact of climate change on the state’s people, economy, and natural resources and to create a Climate Action Plan that recommends strategies to mitigate the impacts. In addition, this act established the Climate Change Advisory Committee[11]Id. at §5 to advise the DEP regarding the implementation of the provisions of this act.[12]Department of Environmental Protection Website, Climate Change Advisory Committee (CCAC), https://www.dep.pa.gov/Citizens/climate/Pages/CCAC.aspx

France

French Ministry of energy transition : Ministère de la transition énergétique:
The ministry prepares and implements Government policy in the areas of energy transition and prepares and implements the policy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
It aims to create a greener economy, reduce carbon emissions, improve energy efficiency and promote sustainable growth of the entire country, from citizens to corporations and local governments.[13]French government website https://www.gouvernement.fr/ministere/ministere-de-la-transition-energetique (last visited Jul. 7, 2023)
The French Agency for Ecological Transition: Agence de la transition écologique (ADEME)
The agency is responsible for Research and development, encouraging local governments and citizens to consume renewable energy.[14]The French Agency for Ecological Transition website, https://www.ademe.fr/en/frontpage/#:~:text=At%20ADEME%2C%20we%20are%20resolutely,them%20the%20means%20to%20progress., last visited Nov. 17, 2023
Energy Transition incentive: MaPrimeRénov’
A state aid program for energy renovation launched in 2020. It creates an incentive for French citizens to undertake energy efficient renovations by providing financial assistance to homeowners for those renovations.[15]Transition energitique website, https://transition-energetique.eco/aides-subvention/

Italy

Ministry of Environment and Energy Security:
The Ministry’s main goal is to promote sustainability in Italy. The ministry has various programs and initiatives, to encourage energy transition, including: Program for the Evaluation of the Environmental Footprint[16]Italian Ministry of environment and Energy Security Website,Program for the Evaluation of the Enviromental Footprint, https://www.mase.gov.it/pagina/program-evaluation-enviromental-footprint ,  «Made Green in Italy»[17]Italian Ministry of environment and Energy Security Website,The “Made Green in Italy” National Scheme,https://www.mase.gov.it/pagina/made-green-italy-national-scheme, Superbonus habitat[18]European Commission, “Superbonus – Strengthening of the Ecobonus and Sismabonus for energy efficiency and building safety”, available at … Continue reading.

ARERA: Italian Regulatory Authority for Energy, Networks and Environment
It consolidates the ministry’s work.  Established in 1995, ARERA is an administrative agency that regulates “activities in the sectors of electricity, natural gas, water services, waste cycle and district heating.”[19]The Italian Regulatory Authority for Energy, Networks and Environment (ARERA) Website, https://www.arera.it/en/

Greece

Ministry of the Environment and Energy:

This governmental department is tasked with managing matters related to environmental conservation, sustainable progress, and energy strategies within the country.[20]European Committee of the Regions, Division of Powers: Greece – Environment & the Fight against Climate Change,  https://portal.cor.europa.eu/divisionpowers/Pages/Greece-Environment.aspx, … Continue reading It is responsible for supervising policies and efforts related to energy, with a specific emphasis on encouraging eco-friendly and sustainable energy sources.[21]Id. This entails facilitating the growth of renewable energy projects, implementing measures to enhance energy efficiency, and devising plans to decrease reliance on fossil fuels.[22] Id.

Regulatory Authority for Energy

The authority is an autonomous regulatory entity with the core responsibility of supervising and managing the energy sector within the country.[23]Greek Regulatory Authority for Energy website, About, https://www.rae.gr/en/about/ (last visited Nov. 10, 2023) Its primary objective is to guarantee the equitable and effective operation of the energy market, all the while protecting the welfare of consumers and fostering a competitive environment.[24]The International Comparative Legal Guides, Renewable Energy Laws and Regulations Greece 2024, https://iclg.com/practice-areas/renewable-energy-laws-and-regulations/greece (last visited Nov. 17, 2023) RAE plays a pivotal role in upholding a robust energy market that emphasizes sustainability, competition, and consumer rights.[25]Id.

Initiatives: 

  • Greco Islands 

In recent years an ambitious project began by the Greek government in partnership with private actors to transition the Greek islands in the energy and the digital field.[26]European Commission, GR-eco Islands: Turning Greek Islands into models of green & sustainable development (2022) … Continue reading) The pillars of this initiative are renewable energy, sustainable waste and water management, zero-polluting mobility and green tourism.[27]Id.  Chalki, where work has already started, is the first Greco Island that Greece is aiming to make energetically autonomous.[28]OT (Greek news website), Small Dodecanese isle of Halki declared Greece’s first ‘GR-eco’ island, english edition ( 2021) … Continue reading)  “Local residents, in cooperation with the municipality, will produce the energy they consume,” said the Greek Minister Mitsotakis.[29]Id.

Romania

Ministry of Energy:

Implements the government’s energy program and strategy and represents the country on a national and international level in energy matters. [30]  Romanian Ministry of Energy Website https://energie.gov.ro/   

Ministry of Foreign Affairs:

Takes care of foreign policies to ensure energy security by: 

  • Promoting cross-border interconnection projects in the natural gas and electricity sectors
  • Supporting  the implementation of major energy infrastructure projects
  • Supporting the European Union initiatives on energy policy reform” [31]Romanian Minstry of Foreing Affairs Website https://www.mae.ro/en/node/2160 (Last updated, Mar,2021)

Romanian Energy Regulatory Authority (“ANRE”):

Takes on the role of overseeing and executing energy efficiency initiatives while encouraging the adoption of renewable energy sources among end-users [32]Energy Regulators Regional Association Website https://erranet.org/member/anre-romania/ .

Initiatives:

In 2018, the government enacted a law that permitted “prosumers,” individuals or entities who both consume and generate electricity, to sell any surplus power they generate back to the grid[33]Vladimir Spasić,  Romanian regulator permits excess electricity sale by prosumers, Balkan Green Energy News (Jan. 9, 2019) … Continue reading. By 2021, the number of prosumers had surged dramatically, witnessing a growth of over 700% compared to the preceding year, totaling more than 13,000 in number. [34]Ylenia Gostoli, “Energy crisis accelerates Romania’s transition to renewables”, TRT World, … Continue reading

Portugal

Ministry of the Environment and Energy Transition.

The Directorate-General for Energy and Geology (DGEG).

The Portuguese Environment Agency APA (Agência Portuguesa do Ambiente):

APA is an agency of the Ministry that works on integrating the policies and goals set by the Ministry[35] European Commision Website, https://clean-energy-islands.ec.europa.eu/supporting-organisations/agencia-portuguesa-do-ambiente-apa in cooperation with other public and private entities

Portuguese Energy Agency ADENE:

ADENE is a private non profit organization that acts as a public interest institution. It aims to encourage citizens and other organizations, to move forward a zero carbon economy[36]https://www.medener.org/en/membre/portugal/

Some of the Portuguese govermental Initiatives include: 

  • Lowering the cost of public transportation[37]Euronews Green, Solar, €49 train tickets and home energy efficiency: Why Portugal is our Green Country of the Month, (published Jul.31,2023 … Continue reading
  • A €100 million home energy efficency program to, among other things,  upgrade home windows and insulation and install solar panels[38]See Id.

Legislation: 

  • Decree law No. 84/2022[39]Portuguese Republic Diary Website, https://diariodarepublica.pt/dr/en/detail/decree-law/84-2022-204502328

In an attempt to achieve the 2050 carbon neutrality target set by the EU, this decree establishes specific goals for the use of energy derived from renewable sources, complementing the incorporation of the European Directive on this matter into the country’s domestic legal framework.

Jordan

Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources:

The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources aims to transition Jordan’s energy sector sustainably. It establishes plans and policies to ensure a reliable supply of diverse energy sources for development while utilizing natural resources optimally.[40]Jordanian Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Website, https://www.memr.gov.jo/en/Pages/About_the_Ministry This includes increasing renewable energy generation through regional cooperation and foreign investment.[41] See Id. The overall goal is to establish a secure, sustainable and efficient energy system for Jordan aligned with international standards on energy transition and climate action.[42] See Id.

  • Initiatives: 

Jordan Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Fund (JREEEF)[43]Jordan Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Fund Website, https://jreeef.memr.gov.jo/En/Pages/About_JREEEF 

Established in 2012 under Jordan’s renewable energy and energy efficiency law[44]Grantham Research Institute at the London School of Economics and Climate Policy Radar (2023) [Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Law, No. 3 of 2010]. Climate Change Laws of the World … Continue reading, JREEEF, which is part of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, provides funding and support for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in Jordan[45]See Supra note 10..

The mission of JREEEF is to promote and increase the use of renewable energy, as well as improve energy efficiency across various sectors.[46]Id. To accomplish this mission, JREEEF makes financing and technical assistance available to energy users and project developers.[47]Id. The goal is to facilitate the deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies, reduce risks, expand market potential, and leverage existing resources.[48]Global Alliance for Building and Construction Website, https://globalabc.org/node/193

Green Growth National Action Plan 2021-2025[49]MoEnv. “Energy Sector Green Growth National Action Plan 2021-2025,” 2020. Amman, The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. https://www.sustainability.gov/pdfs/ggi-jordan-energy.pdf 

The plan provides a strategic framework to transition Jordan’s energy system towards a more sustainable and low-carbon future. Key actions include developing a smart electricity grid, conducting energy efficiency retrofits in public buildings, implementing electric vehicle charging infrastructure, increasing investment in energy research and development, and building institutional capacity.[50]Id. at.14-15

Legislation:

Law No. 13 Of 2012 concerning Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency[51]International Energy Agency, Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency (Law No. 13) (Last updated: Aug. 24, 2021), https://www.iea.org/policies/5348-renewable-energy-energy-efficiency-law-no-13

The law makes the Ministry of Energy responsible for identifying Renewable Energy Development Zones to enhance future renewable energy development and allows companies to bypass the bidding process and negotiate directly with the Minister of Energy to streamline project implementation.[52]See Id.

The law establishes, as mentioned above, the Jordan Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Fund (JREEEF) to provide financial support for renewable energy projects through subsidies, loans, equity financing, guarantees, and grants.[53]See Id.

Overall, the law aims to accelerate growth of Jordan’s renewable energy sector to meet national targets through streamlined implementation, financial incentives, and coordination.[54]See Id.

Morocco

Morocco’s Ministry of Energy Transition and Sustainable Development[55]Moroccan Ministry of Energy Transition and Sustainable Development Website, https://www.mem.gov.ma/en/Pages/secteur.aspx?e=2.

The Ministry plays a crucial role in coordinating Morocco’s renewable energy transition through long-term planning, enabling infrastructure development, boosting local industry participation, and facilitating technology advancement, all aimed at meeting the ambitious national renewable targets by:

  • Monitoring assessment and updating of renewable resource potential, especially for solar and wind mapping.
  • Developing and implementing multi-year renewable energy expansion roadmaps to achieve the 2030 goals.
  • Securing and regulating land for renewable energy projects of public interest.
  • Promoting renewable energy adoption across economic sectors.
  • Supporting research, development, innovation and technology transfer for renewables.[56]See Id. at “Presentation” section

Legislation:

Law No. 40.19, published in March 2023, amended existing laws regarding electricity regulation.[57]François-Guilhem Vaissier & Omar Sinaceu, Morocco: A new legal framework for Independent Power Producers, White & Case, (Apr. 19, 2023), … Continue reading  The new law aims to boost renewable energy growth in Morocco by simplifying licensing, enabling independent power production sales of surplus energy, and strengthening regulations to maintain grid stability as renewable penetration increases.[58]Kenza Bounjou & Wiame El Mouadden Lalami, Morocco’s Energy Oasis: An Analysis of Renewable Energy Legislation Overhaul, Indian Journal of Projects Infrastructure and Energy Law, (Aug. 4, 2023) … Continue reading

Governments prioritizing underrepresented groups in energy transition legislation

United States

California. In developing requirements for a program that improves energy efficiency in residential and nonresidential structures, the Public Utilities Commission (PUC) must consider “[w]orkforce development and job training for residents in disadvantaged communities, including veterans, at-risk youth, and members of the state and local community conservation corps.”[59]Clean Energy and Pollution Reduction Act, CA S.B. 350, Section 8(c)(8), (2015), available at https://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billTextClient.xhtml?bill_id=201520160SB350 (last visited Dec. … Continue reading)

New Mexico. This act requires apprenticeship programs for construction of electricity-generating facilities to “encourage diversity among participants, participation by those underrepresented in the industry associated with that apprenticeship program and participation from disadvantaged communities, as determined by the workforce solutions department.”[60] 54th Legislature – State of New Mexico, Senate bill 489,   p. 46, available at Energy Transition Act, S.B.19-489, 2019 Reg. Sess., § 24(C) (New Mexico 2019).

Washington. This bill addresses the impacts of climate change by leading the transition to a clean energy economy and allows for tax exemptions for companies that purchase machinery or labor if the related project includes “[p]rocurement from and contracts with women, minority, or veteran-owned businesses.”[61]Act Relating to supporting Washington’s clean energy economy and transitioning to a clean, affordable, and reliable energy future, SB 5116 – 2019-20 p.43, available at Supporting … Continue reading

Nicaragua

One of the objects of the Equality and Opportunity Rights Act is to achieve the inclusion of women as well as indigenous communities.  It also aims to avoid all discrimination and exclusion from environmental public policies. [62]Article 29, Section 1 of Equality and Opportunity Rights Law (2008) Save

European Union

“To address the specific situation and role of women in the transition to the climate-neutral economy, gender equality should be promoted. Women’s labour market participation and entrepreneurship, as well as equal pay, play an important role in ensuring equal opportunities. The JTF should also pay special attention to vulnerable groups that suffer disproportionately from the adverse effects of the transition, such as workers with disabilities.”[63]Regulation No 2021/1056 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 June 2021 establishing the Just Transition Fund, 2021 O.J. (L 231), 1.

Egypt

The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and Green Climate Fund partnered to co-fund the Programme for Supporting Renewable Energy and Promoting Gender Equality in Egypt. “The programme will strive to identify challenges that prevent women’s participation in the sector and potential skills mismatches and will work with the Egyptian authorities to overcome these issues.”[64]https://www.ebrd.com/news/2019/ebrd-launches-programme-to-support-women-in-green-energy-in-egypt-.html.

Argentina

The Clean Energy for Vulnerable Households and Communities Project

This project has the objective of ensuring that over 200,000 individuals residing in remote rural areas gain access to high-quality electricity services. The World Bank’s Board of Directors has granted approval for three fresh financing initiatives in Argentina, one of which amounts to $400 million designated for the expansion of clean energy accessibility and the promotion of energy-efficient practices within susceptible households and communities.[65]WORLD BANK, World Bank: Investments to improve Health, Energy and Infrastructure in Argentina. … Continue reading In alignment with the guidelines established by Laws 27.191 and 27.424, Argentina has established ambitious targets, aiming to achieve a renewable energy consumption level of 20 percent by 2025, along with the installation of 1,000 MW of power generation capacity by 2025 and an additional 1,000 MW of distributed generation capacity by 2030.[66]Act 27191 Legal Regulations on National Promotion for the Use of Sources of Renewable Energy, Congress Argentina (2015) (enacted) … Continue reading

Brazil

Government Initiatives:

Ministry of mines and Energy and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation:

Discussions held in 2019 led to the initiation of the Energy Big Push project, a collaborative endeavor supported by the German government and the United Nations, focused on advancing clean energy innovation. [67]International Energy Agency, Brazil aims to make a global impact on clean energy innovation (2023), available … Continue reading) This initiative brought together key government entities and stakeholders, such as EPE and the Centre for Strategic Studies and Management, to establish a framework for improved data and the formulation of energy innovation policies in Brazil. [68]Id. Leveraging inova-e, an exemplary online platform for energy R&D spending and innovation data, Brazil has gained crucial insights shaping its energy innovation strategy, with the Ministry of Mines and Energy and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation introducing new institutional structures and securing funding from the European Commission and UK government for both inova-e and an extended phase of the Energy Big Push project, addressing broader issues beyond research and development. [69]Id.

The National Electric Energy Agency (Aneel):  

The National Electric Energy Agency is in the process of updating its operational procedures in accordance with a federal law imposing research and development obligations on Brazilian electricity utilities, with the goal of expanding the scope to possibly incorporate the option of encouraging venture capital investments in startups. [70]International Energy Agency, Brazil aims to make a global impact on clean energy innovation (2023), available … Continue reading)

Legislative Initiatives

The just transition law Number 14.299, published January 5, 2022, created the Just Energy transition program, the main goal of which is to prepare the region for phasing out coal in the Santa Catarina state. [71]International Energy Agency, Just Energy Transition Programme (2022), available at https://www.iea.org/policies/14590-just-energy-transition-programme (last visited Nov. 27, 2023)   It ensures that power will be contracted from coal power plants up to 2040. [72]Id.

Law 14.300/2022 changes the way the solar tax is charged on electricity bills. [73]Rödl & Partner, Brazil: New Government in Place | What to Expect from Current and new Policies on Renewable Energy Sector (2023), available … Continue reading)  Under the 2022 law, offsetting credits  that reduce the impact of the solar tax are now assessed a new fee to account for distribution expenses. [74]Id.  However, entities that had already installed a solar panel are be exempt from this tax until 2045. [75]Id.

The launch of the National Biofuels Policy (RenovaBio) in December 2017 aimed to bolster Brazil’s fulfillment of the commitments outlined in its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) under the Paris Agreement. [76]C. Grangeia et al, The Brazilian biofuel policy (RenovaBio) and its uncertainties: An assessment of technical, socioeconomic and institutional aspects (2022), Energy Conversion and Management: X … Continue reading This policy comprises three strategic axes: 1) Decarbonization Goals; 2) Biofuel Production Certification; and 3) Decarbonization Credit (CBIO). [77]Ministério de Minas e Energia, Secretaria de Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis,  RenovaBio,  available … Continue reading) Each goal has a decree or law that regulates it. The decarbonization goal was regulated by Decree No. 9,888/2019, the certification by ANP Resolution No. 758/2018 and CBIO credit transactions by No. 419/2019. [78]Id.

Colombia

Programs

Colombia has a ministry of Energy which has been the lead governmental institution on initiatives and programs for energy transition in the country[79]Colombian Ministry of Mines and Energy Website,https://www.minenergia.gov.co/en/ . A landmark project was the so-called Energy Plan 2050 focused on identifying the necessary transformations that will need to occur in Colombia to build long-term socio-ecological climate resilience.[80]IEA International Energy Agency website, Colombia 2023 Executive Summary, https://www.iea.org/reports/colombia-2023/executive-summary

The E2050 formulation process is led by the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, the DNP (Department of National Planning) and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, with the permanent support of the Government of France through its financial and technical cooperation agencies (AFD and Expertise France)[81]See E2050 Colombia Executive Summary Report,p.12, at 06, Expertise France, Available at … Continue reading. This open and participatory process follows the guidelines defined in the Roadmap approved by the Intersectoral Commission on Climate Change (CICC) in September 2019.[82]See Id, at 05.

Legislative Initiatives

Colombian legislative initiatives are mainly Laws, decrets and other guidelines proposed by the bicameral Congress of the nation. In this section we will address the legal framework and instruments for the promotion of the use of non-conventional energy sources, mainly those of a renewable nature, as well as for the promotion of investment, research and development of clean technologies for energy production, energy efficiency and demand response, within the framework of the Colombian energy policy.

Law 1715 of 2014[83]Law 1715 of 2014 through which the integration of non-conventional renewable energies into the National Energy System is regulated, Congress of the Republic of Colombia (May.13, 2014) … Continue reading: This was the landmark law that promoted the development and use of non-conventional energy sources and storage systems for efficient use of energy, mainly those of a renewable nature, in the nation’s energy system, it promotes efficient energy management and smart metering systems, which include both energy efficiency and demand response.

It Introduces the term ZNI or Non-Interconnected Zones[84]See id at 22., which are municipalities, townships, localities and hamlets not connected to the National Interconnected System (SIN), meaning that have limited or no access at all to traditionally sourced energy.

Law 1819 of 2016[85]Law 1819 of 2016 through which a structural tax reform is adopted, the mechanisms to combat tax evasion and avoidance are strengthened, and other provisions are dictated, Congress of the Republic of … Continue reading: This tributary/tax reform presented a series of tax deductions for renewable energy and implements a carbon tax via article 221 gas and petroleum derivatives fuel oils have the highest tax rates.

Law 2099 of 2021[86]Law 2099 of 2021 through which provisions are dictated for the energy transition, the dynamization of the energy market, the economic reactivation of the country and other provisions are dictated., … Continue reading: Modifies the Law 1715 of 2014 and makes reference to the creation of a Single Fund for Energy Solutions – FONENERGIA[87]See id, Art.10, an autonomous patrimony to be constituted by the Ministry of Mines and Energy, through the execution of a mercantile trust agreement, that would help coordinate, articulate and focus the different sources of resources to finance and carry out plans, projects and programs to improve the quality of service, expand energy coverage and standardization of networks through electric power and fuel gas solutions with criteria of environmental sustainability and social progress, under domiciliary public service schemes or different from this one.[88]Id.

Article 53 Presents a Training for employment with the joint support of SENA (National Apprenticeship Service), the Ministry of Labor, the Ministry of Mines and Energy and the Ministry of Education, were technical and professional education programs shall be promoted in order to teach the necessary skills in the sectors related to Non-Conventional Energy Sources and Efficient Energy Management.[89]See Supra note, Article 53.

El Salvador

The most important governmental initiative based on international support for El Salvador is the EUROCLIMA program, which is funded by the European Union and co-financed by the German Federal Government through the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), as well as by the governments of France and Spain through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[90]International and Ibero-American Foundation for Administration and Public Policies … Continue reading

El Salvador’s governmen aims to diversify energy, reduce oil dependency with renewable enegry[91]Climate Scope, El Salvaor, Bloomberg NEF,https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/sv/. There have been several clean energy auctions since 2013[92]Id.. One of the latest was held in January 2017, where the CNE, (Consejo Nacional de Energía) awarded 119 MW (DC) of solar energy and 70 MW of wind as four solar projects were selected contracting 310 megawatts (MW) of renewable capacity. [93]Emiliano Bellini,”El Salvador launches auction for PV projects up to 2 MW in size”, PV Magazine, (May 21,2018), … Continue reading

The country provides tax exemptions and priority grid access for clean energy, while the regulator enabled net metering in 2017 for sale of surplus power to the grid.[94]See Supra note.
El Salvador has 2.4GW of installed capacity, led by oil/diesel at 32% and hydro at 23%. Solar dominates renewables with 21% share and 507MW, up from just 104MW in 2017. The market is open to private generators and connected regionally via SIEPAC.[95]Id.
The 2020–2050 National Energy Policy aims to universal electricity access by 2030.[96]Nunez Zelaya,Anamaria,IDB Backs Program for Universal Access to Electricity in El Salvador, IDB,(Oct.11, 2023), https://www.iadb.org/en/news/idb-backs-program-universal-access-electricity-el-salvador
El Salvador lacks EV targets but promotes adoption through customs and tax incentives like duty exemptions and VAT reductions for electric, hybrid, and two-three wheel vehicles.[97]Climate Scope, El Salvaor, Bloomberg NEF,https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/sv/

Guatemala

Government Initiatives:

Guatemala provides tax incentives to promote the adoption of electric vehicles, and there is a proposal to gradually implement the vehicle circulation tax (ISCV) on EVs[98]Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope Guatemala (2022), https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/gt/ (last visited Nov. 10, 2023.

In that sense, in the initial year of ownership, no taxes would apply, with the exemption diminishing gradually until the complete tax obligation is reinstated, typically between the fifth and 10th year.[99]Id.

In 2019, the country unveiled its National Energy Efficiency Plan, aiming to achieve a 15% reduction in energy consumption by 2032 compared to business-as-usual, encompassing specific targets such as 30% for public sector institutions, 25% for industry, and 18% for the residential sector. [100]Id.

Panama

Panama’s National Energy Plan 2015-2050 included a target for 70% of installed generation capacity to come from renewable energy by 2050[101]Climate Scope, Panama, BloombergNEF, https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/pa/. The country’s efforts to promote renewables development include tax policies and duty exemptions, but it no longer holds tenders specifically for clean energy contracts.[102]Id.
Panama offers attractive tax benefits to promote clean energy generation. Since 2004, renewable projects up to 500 kilowatts are fully exempt from equipment import and value-added taxes[103]See Id.. Larger projects get income tax credits, such as 25% of investment for generators up to 10 megawatts[104]Id.. Over 10 megawatts earns a fiscal benefit of 25% and an income tax credit up to 50% of the investment. Smaller renewables also get exempted from transmission and distribution fees[105]Id.. Additional incentives target technologies like solar PV and wind. Solar equipment avoids import tax and VAT, and gets a 5% income tax credit plus accelerated depreciation[106]Id.. Wind generation imports are duty-free and owners pay no national taxes for 15 years[107]Id.. A 2016 net metering policy further enables self-generation facilities to connect to the grid and sell excess power, accumulating bill credits up to 25% of historic use.[108]Id.

Uruguay

Energy Policy 2005-2030

Guided by the Energy Policy 2005-2030 under MIEM-DNE (Ministry of Industry, Energy and Mines through the National Energy Directorate), Uruguay has achieved near-universal electricity access at 99.8%, with a 100% electrification goal by 2030[109]Climate Scope Bloomberg NEF, Uruguay, https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/uy/ . This approach emphasizes equitable and sustainable consumption, especially for vulnerable populations, aligning with the four main strategic axes of the policy[110]Uruguay Ministry of Industry, Energy and Mines, Energy Policy 2005-2030 (2005), p.3 available at … Continue reading. These axes encompass ensuring 100% affordable energy access for residential, industrial, and service sectors, promoting sustainable transportation, and providing energy-resilient housing for vulnerable households[111]See Id p.9. However, a key challenge stems from limited electricity demand growth, as Uruguay has already incorporated substantial wind and solar capacity relative to market size, resulting in financial implications.[112] See Id p.7 

Austria

The Away from oil and gas programme 2023/2024

The “away from oil and gas” financial incentive program aims to assist both individuals and businesses in transitioning from fossil fuel-based space heating systems to more sustainable alternatives. In Austria, approximately 600,000 households still rely on environmentally harmful oil heating systems. Notably, the program places a significant focus on aiding low-income households. For the lowest 20% of income earners, an additional EUR 100 million was allocated for support between 2021 and 2022. This special provision enables financial assistance of up to 100% of the new heating system’s cost. It is expected that this targeted support will benefit around 8,000 low-income households, contributing to social and economic progress and fostering the involvement of all segments of society in the transition to cleaner energy sources.[113]FEDERAL MINISTRY REPUBLIC OF AUSTRIA, ECONOMY, “raus aus Öl und Gas” 2023/2024 https://www.oesterreich.gv.at/themen/bauen_wohnen_und_umwelt/energie_sparen/1/raus_aus_oel.html (las … Continue reading)

Norway

In 1991, Norway imposed a carbon tax on the combustion of fossil fuels and the petroleum sector.[114]International Energy Agency, Energy Policy Review Norway 2022, 13 (2022), https://iea.blob.core.windows.net/assets/de28c6a6-8240-41d9-9082-a5dd65d9f3eb/NORWAY2022.pdf (last visited Nov. 09, 2023) Being one of the first countries in the world to place taxes on these sectors, approximately 85% of Norway’s domestic GHG emissions are either covered by the EU Emissions Trading System or a CO2 tax (or other GHG taxes), or both.[115]Id.
Additionally, and through a Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) under the Paris Agreement, the country committed to reduce its emissions by at least 50% to 55% by 2030 compared to their 1990 emission levels.[116]Norwegian Ministry of Climate and Environment, Lov om klimamål (klimaloven) (2021), https://lovdata.no/dokument/NLE/lov/2017-06-16-60 (last visited, 2023) In June 2017, the Norwegian parliament adopted a Climate Change Act establishing that Norway’s NDC aim would be to reduce emissions by 90 to 95% by 2050 compared to their 1990 emission levels.[117]Id.

As part of the European Union’s (EU) internal energy market, Norway works closely with the EU on matters related to energy and climate.[118]International Energy Agency, supra note 1, at 10  Norway has agreed to participate in EU climate legislation through 2030, on matters related to the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS); the Effort Sharing Regulation (ESR) for non-ETS emissions; and the land use, land-use change and forestry regulation (LULUCF).[119]Id.

In January 2021, Norway’s former government presented an Economy-wide Climate Action Plan for 2021-2030 to parliament describing an action plan to reduce emissions by at least 50% and up to 55% of 1990 levels by 2030.[120]Norwegian Ministry of Climate and Environment, Norway’s Climate Action Plan for 2021–2030, https://www.regjeringen.no/en/dokumenter/meld.-st.-13-20202021/id2827405/?ch=1 (last visited Nov. 09, … Continue reading The action plan’s main emphasis is on emissions from sectors not covered by the EU ETS, including from transport, buildings, waste and agriculture.[121]Id. The plan includes policies and measures aimed at cutting emissions from non-ETS sectors, which account for around half of Norway’s total emissions, by 45% by 2030 from 2005 levels.[122]Id. It also addresses EU ETS emissions as well as CO2 emissions and removals from LULUCF.[123]Id. The main policy instruments in the Climate Action Plan are GHG taxation, regulatory measures, climate-related requirements in public procurement processes, information for the public on climate-friendly options, financial support for the development of new technologies, and initiatives to promote research and innovation.[124]Id. The white paper announced a gradual increase in the national carbon tax rate to 2,000 NOK/t CO2-eq (196 EUR/t CO2-eq) in 2030, which would be one of the highest levels in the OECD.[125]Norwegian Ministry of Climate and Environment, supra note 6)

Spain

Spain’s National Strategy to Transition Coal-Dependent Communities

Spain’s coal industry has faced a prolonged decline since the late 1990s, due to factors such as economic forces, domestic priorities, and European Union directives, resulting in a drastic reduction in coal mining employment from 45,000 in 1990 to approximately 1,700 today[126]World Resource Institute, Spain’s National Strategy to Transition Coal-Dependent Communities (2021), availabl at … Continue reading.

The concentrated nature of mining in specific towns and regions has led to economic challenges. In 2019, Spain introduced the Just Transition Strategy as part of its broader decarbonization efforts, aiming to navigate the economic fallout of previous mine closures and protect the livelihoods of coal miners and power plant workers, but funding uncertainties linger as the majority of coal jobs have already disappeared.[127]Id.)) Energy Transition initiatives: The National Energy Poverty Strategy 2019-2024 The National Energy Poverty Strategy 2019-2024, endorsed in 2019, serves as a comprehensive tool for the in-depth … Continue reading Within this strategy, energy poverty is defined, and its extent and evolution are measured through four indicators: 1) the percentage of households spending more than double the national average on energy relative to household income; 2) the percentage of households with absolute energy expenditure less than half the national average; 3) the inability to maintain dwellings at adequate temperatures; and 4) delays in energy bill payments. [128]Id.

Sweden

The Industrial Deep Decarbonization Initiative (IDDI) within the Clean Energy Ministerial is a global alliance aiming to boost the use of low-carbon industrial materials.[129]United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Industrial Deep Decarbonization, an initiative of the clean energy ministerial, available at https://www.unido.org/IDDI In partnership with governments, it seeks to standardize carbon assessments, set ambitious procurement targets, encourage investment in low-carbon product development, and formulate industry guidelines.[130]See Id.  Sweden’s participation in the initiative was announced at the COP27 climate conference.[131]Press Release, Ministry of Climate and Entreprise, “Sweden increases its engagement in the Clean Energy Ministerial to accelerate the industry transition”(Nov. 25, 2022), available at … Continue reading

Furthermore, Sweden’s energy strategy is intricately intertwined with its climate objectives, as corroborated by the most recent evaluation of the nation’s energy policies by the International Energy Agency.[132]International Energy Agency, “Sweden is a leader in the energy transition, according to latest IEA country review”, available at … Continue reading). In both the 2016 Energy Agreement and the 2017 Climate Framework, Sweden laid out ambitious targets, including the long-term aspiration of achieving net-zero emissions by 2045.[133]Id. However, further measures are imperative to realize these objectives, given that the country’s overall carbon emissions have remained relatively stable since 2013.[134]Id.

The 2015 Paris Agreement prompted Sweden to establish long-term goals for energy and climate policy.[135]Karin Thalberg, “The Swedish energy transition. A race far from won”, Policy brief, Paris: Jacques Delors Institute, (Sep.9,2022), p.8, available at … Continue reading However, the existing framework is considered inadequate. Agreements, supported by a parliamentary majority, strive to establish a clear and cohesive energy and climate policy, providing enduring signals for decarbonization[136]Id.. In Sweden’s parliamentary system, cross-party collaborations are crucial for governing the ongoing climate and energy transition.[137]Id.

Sweden defined its current long-term energy policy goals in the 2016 Framework Agreement on Energy Policy (Energy Agreement), supported by a large majority in the parliament, representing both the government and the opposition.[138]Swedish Nuclear Society and Analysgruppen, The Swedish energy policy agreement of 10 June 2016 – unofficial English translation, available at … Continue reading

By 2045, Sweden aims for net-zero greenhouse gas emissions and subsequently negative emissions. The 2040 target is 100% renewable electricity, not prohibiting nuclear power, and doesn’t mandate closure through political decisions.[139]Swedish Nuclear Society and Analysgruppen, “The Swedish energy policy agreement of 10 June 2016 – unofficial English translation”, available at … Continue reading)

Governments that prefer locating new energy resources in former fossil-dependent communities

United States

Illinois. Under Section 10 of the Energy Transition Act, [140]Illinois Senate Bill 2408 an energy Community Reinvestment Act was created outlining a legislative intent to facilitate a smooth transition to 100% renewable energy in Illinois while recognizing the potential impact on communities and workers and proposing specific measures and resource allocations to address these challenges in a just and supportive manner.[141]Illinois General Assembly, Public Act 102-0662, available at: Energy Transition Act, IL SB2408 (2021-2022).  That act attempts to address the need of “providing support for the transition of Illinois’ communities and workers impacted by closures or reduced use of fossil fuel power plants, nuclear power plants, or coal mines by allocating new economic development resources for business tax incentives, workforce training, site clean-up and reuse, and local tax revenue replacement.”[142]Id.

New Mexico. The Energy Transition Act states that resources “able to reduce the cost of reclamation and use for lands previously mined within the county of the qualifying generating facility,” are to be given preference in determining the approval of the said resources.[143] State of New Mexico, Senate bill 489 “Energy transition Act”, p.10, available at S.B.19-489, 2019 Reg. Sess. §(3) (B) (New Mexico 2019).

Governments that provide job retraining/educational support for workers losing energy jobs

United States

California. “It is the intent of the Legislature to subsequently amend this measure to include provisions that would establish the California Equitable Just Transition Fund to assist fossil fuel-dependent workers with wage replacement, wage insurance, pension guarantees, health care, retraining, peer counseling, and relocation support for fossil fuel workers who face layoffs due to closure of operations.” Introduced February 10, 2022, Introduced on February 10 2022 – 25% progression, proposed and not enacted [144]Fossil fuel-dependent workers: California Equitable Just Transition Fund, CA AB1966, California Legislature (2021-2022), available at https://legiscan.com/CA/bill/AB1966/2021 (last visited Dec. 08, … Continue reading)

Connecticut. The act provides for the Just Transition Office to establish a “workforce development, retraining and apprenticeship program for clean energy jobs,” enabling trainees to obtain real world experience and assistance to obtain applicable certifications. Introduced February 2020, not enacted.[145]An Act Establishing a Green New Deal in Connecticut. Raised S.B. No. 354 2020; https://www.cga.ct.gov/2020/TOB/S/PDF/2020SB-00354-R00-SB.PDF

Massachusetts. This act was designed to mitigate the severe impacts of the climate crisis by outlining strategies and policies aimed at attaining a state of net-zero emissions requiring the creation of a clean energy equity workshop. One of the goals of this workshop would be to provide job training and job placement for former fossil fuel industry workers. Proposed but not enacted.[146]An Act to prevent the worst effects of our climate emergency by providing policy pathways to achieve net zero emissions, The Commonwealth of Massachusetts available at A bill to prevent the worst … Continue reading

Maryland. Climate Solutions Now Act of 2022 establishes strategies for targeting workforce development and job creation in fenceline communities that have historically borne the brunt of hosting carbon polluters. Introduced and enacted in April 2022. [147]S.B. 0528, (Md. Regular Session 2022) (“Climate Solutions Now Act of 2022”), available at https://mgaleg.maryland.gov/mgawebsite/Legislation/Details/sb0528?ys=2022RS (last visited January … Continue reading)

Minnesota.H.F. 6 is the 2021 omnibus commerce and energy finance policy. It establishes the Minnesota Energy Transition Plan, and a report of impacted facility closures, projected associated job losses, and the effect on impacted communities and impacted workers by 2022. It appropriates funding in state fiscal years 2022 and 2023 . Introduced and enacted in June 2021. [148]H.F. 6, 92d Leg. (Minn. 2021) (“Omnibus commerce, climate, and energy finance bill”), available at https://www.revisor.mn.gov/bills/bill.php?b=House&f=HF6&ssn=1&y=2021 (last visited … Continue reading)

New York: This amendment establishes a Worker Assurance Program which creates programs or disburses funds between 3 to 10 years for “transitional support including… skills training, job counselling, tuition support and on-the-job training,” [149]“An act to amend the environmental conservation law, the executive law, the labor law and the tax law, in relation to enacting the climate and community investment act” S. B. S7905, … Continue reading for adversely affected workers. This is to be financed through a fund created under the tax law.[150]See Id. at18, 41

New Mexico. The Act permits the expenditure of funds for job training of displaced workers through the “Energy Transition Displaced Worker Assistance Fund” to a municipality, county, Indian nation, pueblo or tribe or land grant community in New Mexico.[151]Energy Transition Act, S.B.19-489, 2019 Reg. Sess. § 16 (F) (3)(N. M. 2019), p.38, available at https://www.nmlegis.gov/Sessions/19%20Regular/bills/senate/SB0489.pdf

Alberta, Canada

The Alberta government provides vouchers for workers to pursue post-secondary education to train for new careers if their worksite is closing permanently or temporarily within the next 5 years or if the worker has received a formal written notice of layoffs.[152]Government of  Alberta Website, Coal and Electricity Transition Tuition Voucher, available at https://www.alberta.ca/coal-tuition-voucher (last visited Dec. 08, 2023)

Governments that provide apprenticeship opportunities or re-employment for workers losing energy jobs

United States

Colorado. While not law, the Colorado Department of Labor and Employment published its Just Transition Action Plan. In the Plan, the Department recommends providing apprenticeship programs to recently unemployed fossil fuel workers, but currently does not have the funds to implement them and thus will only use existing resources for now.[153]Colorado Department of Labor and Employment,Colorado Just Transition Action Plan, at 8, https://cdle.colorado.gov/sites/cdle/files/documents/Colorado%20Just%20Transition%20Action%20Plan.pdf (Dec.31, … Continue reading

New Mexico. In New Mexico’s Energy Transition Act, the legislature provides funding to local governments that institute apprenticeship programs for displaced energy workers.[154] State of New Mexico, Senate bill 489 “Energy Transition Act”, available at SB 489, 2019, §16(F)(3).

References

References
1 California Code, Public Resources Code – PRC § 25000, available at https://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/codes_displayText.xhtml?lawCode=PRC&division=15.&title=&part=&chapter=1.&article=  (last visited Dec. 8, 2023)
2 Colorado Official State Web Portal, HB19-1314 – Just Transition From Coal-based Electrical Energy Economy (2019), available at https://climate.colorado.gov/hb-19-1314-just-transition-from-coal-based-electrical-energy-economy (last visited Dec. 08, 2023
3 Massachusetts Admisnistration of the government, executive and administrative officers of the commonwealth, available at  Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 21A et seq.
4 Executive Directive 2020 – 10.
5 H.F. 6, 92d Leg. (Minn. 2021) (“Omnibus commerce, climate, and energy finance bill”), available at https://www.revisor.mn.gov/bills/bill.php?b=House&f=HF6&ssn=1&y=2021 (last visited January 23, 2024
6 Executive Order No. 8-2019.
7 Energy Transition Act, available at S.B. 0489
8 New York State Build Public Renewables Act, S.B S6453C, Reg. Sess. (Ny. 2021),  https://www.nysenate.gov/legislation/bills/2021/S6453
9 New York Assembly Website,”Assemblymember Carroll Announces His Major Climate Change Legislation – The Build Public Renewables Act Included in the State’s Final Budget”(May 2, 2023), available at https://nyassembly.gov/mem/Robert-C-Carroll/story/105881
10 Pennsylvania Climate Change Act of 2008, Pub. L. 935, No.70 (2008), https://www.legis.state.pa.us/cfdocs/legis/li/uconsCheck.cfm?yr=2008&sessInd=0&act=70
11 Id. at §5
12 Department of Environmental Protection Website, Climate Change Advisory Committee (CCAC), https://www.dep.pa.gov/Citizens/climate/Pages/CCAC.aspx
13 French government website https://www.gouvernement.fr/ministere/ministere-de-la-transition-energetique (last visited Jul. 7, 2023
14 The French Agency for Ecological Transition website, https://www.ademe.fr/en/frontpage/#:~:text=At%20ADEME%2C%20we%20are%20resolutely,them%20the%20means%20to%20progress., last visited Nov. 17, 2023
15 Transition energitique website, https://transition-energetique.eco/aides-subvention/
16 Italian Ministry of environment and Energy Security Website,Program for the Evaluation of the Enviromental Footprint, https://www.mase.gov.it/pagina/program-evaluation-enviromental-footprint
17 Italian Ministry of environment and Energy Security Website,The “Made Green in Italy” National Scheme,https://www.mase.gov.it/pagina/made-green-italy-national-scheme
18 European Commission, “Superbonus – Strengthening of the Ecobonus and Sismabonus for energy efficiency and building safety”, available at https://commission.europa.eu/projects/superbonus-strengthening-ecobonus-and-sismabonus-energy-efficiency-and-building-safety_en
19 The Italian Regulatory Authority for Energy, Networks and Environment (ARERA) Website, https://www.arera.it/en/
20 European Committee of the Regions, Division of Powers: Greece – Environment & the Fight against Climate Changehttps://portal.cor.europa.eu/divisionpowers/Pages/Greece-Environment.aspx, last visited Nov. 17, 2023
21 Id.
22 Id.
23 Greek Regulatory Authority for Energy website, About, https://www.rae.gr/en/about/ (last visited Nov. 10, 2023
24 The International Comparative Legal Guides, Renewable Energy Laws and Regulations Greece 2024, https://iclg.com/practice-areas/renewable-energy-laws-and-regulations/greece (last visited Nov. 17, 2023
25 Id.
26 European Commission, GR-eco Islands: Turning Greek Islands into models of green & sustainable development (2022) https://clean-energy-islands.ec.europa.eu/news/gr-eco-islands-turning-greek-islands-models-green-sustainable-development (last visited Nov. 10, 2023
27 Id.
28 OT (Greek news website), Small Dodecanese isle of Halki declared Greece’s first ‘GR-eco’ island, english edition ( 2021) https://www.ot.gr/2021/11/05/english-edition/small-dodecanese-isle-of-halki-declared-greeces-first-gr-eco-island/ (last visited Nov. 10, 2023
29 Id.
30  Romanian Ministry of Energy Website https://energie.gov.ro/   
31 Romanian Minstry of Foreing Affairs Website https://www.mae.ro/en/node/2160 (Last updated, Mar,2021)
32 Energy Regulators Regional Association Website https://erranet.org/member/anre-romania/
33 Vladimir Spasić,  Romanian regulator permits excess electricity sale by prosumers, Balkan Green Energy News (Jan. 9, 2019) https://balkangreenenergynews.com/romanian-regulator-permits-excess-electricity-sale-by-prosumers/
34 Ylenia Gostoli, “Energy crisis accelerates Romania’s transition to renewables”, TRT World, https://www.trtworld.com/magazine/energy-crisis-accelerates-romania-s-transition-to-renewables-59931 
35 European Commision Website, https://clean-energy-islands.ec.europa.eu/supporting-organisations/agencia-portuguesa-do-ambiente-apa
36 https://www.medener.org/en/membre/portugal/
37 Euronews Green, Solar, €49 train tickets and home energy efficiency: Why Portugal is our Green Country of the Month, (published Jul.31,2023 https://www.euronews.com/green/2023/07/31/solar-49-train-tickets-and-home-energy-efficiency-why-portugal-is-our-green-country-of-the
38 See Id.
39 Portuguese Republic Diary Website, https://diariodarepublica.pt/dr/en/detail/decree-law/84-2022-204502328
40 Jordanian Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Website, https://www.memr.gov.jo/en/Pages/About_the_Ministry
41 See Id.
42 See Id.
43 Jordan Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Fund Website, https://jreeef.memr.gov.jo/En/Pages/About_JREEEF 
44 Grantham Research Institute at the London School of Economics and Climate Policy Radar (2023) [Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Law, No. 3 of 2010]. Climate Change Laws of the World https://climate-laws.org/document/renewable-energy-energy-efficiency-law-no-3-of-2010_0025 
45 See Supra note 10.
46 Id.
47 Id.
48 Global Alliance for Building and Construction Website, https://globalabc.org/node/193
49 MoEnv. “Energy Sector Green Growth National Action Plan 2021-2025,” 2020. Amman, The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. https://www.sustainability.gov/pdfs/ggi-jordan-energy.pdf 
50 Id. at.14-15
51 International Energy Agency, Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency (Law No. 13) (Last updated: Aug. 24, 2021), https://www.iea.org/policies/5348-renewable-energy-energy-efficiency-law-no-13
52 See Id.
53 See Id.
54 See Id.
55 Moroccan Ministry of Energy Transition and Sustainable Development Website, https://www.mem.gov.ma/en/Pages/secteur.aspx?e=2.
56 See Id. at “Presentation” section
57 François-Guilhem Vaissier & Omar Sinaceu, Morocco: A new legal framework for Independent Power Producers, White & Case, (Apr. 19, 2023), https://www.whitecase.com/insight-alert/morocco-new-legal-framework-independent-power-producers 
58 Kenza Bounjou & Wiame El Mouadden Lalami, Morocco’s Energy Oasis: An Analysis of Renewable Energy Legislation Overhaul, Indian Journal of Projects Infrastructure and Energy Law, (Aug. 4, 2023) https://ijpiel.com/index.php/2023/08/04/moroccos-energy-oasis-an-analysis-of-renewable-energy-legislation-overhaul/
59 Clean Energy and Pollution Reduction Act, CA S.B. 350, Section 8(c)(8), (2015), available at https://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billTextClient.xhtml?bill_id=201520160SB350 (last visited Dec. 08, 2023
60 54th Legislature – State of New Mexico, Senate bill 489,   p. 46, available at Energy Transition Act, S.B.19-489, 2019 Reg. Sess., § 24(C) (New Mexico 2019).
61 Act Relating to supporting Washington’s clean energy economy and transitioning to a clean, affordable, and reliable energy future, SB 5116 – 2019-20 p.43, available at Supporting Washington’s clean energy economy and transitioning to a clean, affordable, and reliable energy future, 5116-S2.SL, 2019 Reg. Sess., Section 18(1)(c)(i)(A) (Washington 2019).
62 Article 29, Section 1 of Equality and Opportunity Rights Law (2008)
63 Regulation No 2021/1056 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 June 2021 establishing the Just Transition Fund, 2021 O.J. (L 231), 1.
64 https://www.ebrd.com/news/2019/ebrd-launches-programme-to-support-women-in-green-energy-in-egypt-.html.
65 WORLD BANK, World Bank: Investments to improve Health, Energy and Infrastructure in Argentina. https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2023/06/28/inversiones-para-mejorar-la-salud-energia-infraestructura-en-argentina (last visited Aug. 03, 2023
66 Act 27191 Legal Regulations on National Promotion for the Use of Sources of Renewable Energy, Congress Argentina (2015) (enacted) https://www.energia.gob.ar/contenidos/archivos/Reorganizacion/renovables/legislacion/ARGENTINA_-_Renewable_Energy_Law_Act_27191_(English_version).pdf
67 International Energy Agency, Brazil aims to make a global impact on clean energy innovation (2023), available at https://www.iea.org/commentaries/brazil-aims-to-make-a-global-impact-on-clean-energy-innovation (last visited Nov. 28, 2023
68 Id.
69 Id.
70 International Energy Agency, Brazil aims to make a global impact on clean energy innovation (2023), available at https://www.iea.org/commentaries/brazil-aims-to-make-a-global-impact-on-clean-energy-innovation (last visited Nov. 28, 2023
71 International Energy Agency, Just Energy Transition Programme (2022), available at https://www.iea.org/policies/14590-just-energy-transition-programme (last visited Nov. 27, 2023
72 Id.
73 Rödl & Partner, Brazil: New Government in Place | What to Expect from Current and new Policies on Renewable Energy Sector (2023), available at https://www.roedl.com/insights/renewable-energy/2023/february/brazil-new-government (last visited Nov. 27, 2023
74 Id.
75 Id.
76 C. Grangeia et al, The Brazilian biofuel policy (RenovaBio) and its uncertainties: An assessment of technical, socioeconomic and institutional aspects (2022), Energy Conversion and Management: X 13, 100156,  available at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590174521000817. Haga clic o pulse si confía en este vínculo." href="https://nam10.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.sciencedirect.com%2Fscience%2Farticle%2Fpii%2FS2590174521000817&data=05%7C01%7Cjjo5503%40psu.edu%7C0b15fa010f72413554f308dbe9ef2b91%7C7cf48d453ddb4389a9c1c115526eb52e%7C0%7C0%7C638360985658904364%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000%7C%7C%7C&sdata=2v4A2j2hc0J2sVy7rm%2FDiMm9HpjSbm1sk9dYwnwSCQk%3D&reserved=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" data-auth="NotApplicable" data-linkindex="3" data-loopstyle="linkonly">https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590174521000817
77 Ministério de Minas e Energia, Secretaria de Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis,  RenovaBio,  available at http://antigo.mme.gov.br/web/guest/secretarias/petroleo-gas-natural-e-biocombustiveis/acoes-e-programas/programas/renovabio. Haga clic o pulse si confía en este vínculo." href="https://nam10.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fantigo.mme.gov.br%2Fweb%2Fguest%2Fsecretarias%2Fpetroleo-gas-natural-e-biocombustiveis%2Facoes-e-programas%2Fprogramas%2Frenovabio&data=05%7C01%7Cjjo5503%40psu.edu%7C0b15fa010f72413554f308dbe9ef2b91%7C7cf48d453ddb4389a9c1c115526eb52e%7C0%7C0%7C638360985658904364%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000%7C%7C%7C&sdata=3s1oQBSRql1fDPd2mPvdNo2MGAhofw3HCibYLqjz3KA%3D&reserved=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" data-auth="NotApplicable" data-linkindex="4" data-loopstyle="linkonly">http://antigo.mme.gov.br/web/guest/secretarias/petroleo-gas-natural-e-biocombustiveis/acoes-e-programas/programas/renovabio (last visited Nov. 27, 2023
78 Id.
79 Colombian Ministry of Mines and Energy Website,https://www.minenergia.gov.co/en/
80 IEA International Energy Agency website, Colombia 2023 Executive Summary, https://www.iea.org/reports/colombia-2023/executive-summary
81 See E2050 Colombia Executive Summary Report,p.12, at 06, Expertise France, Available at https://www.expertisefrance.fr/documents/20182/800759/Executive+Summary+E2050+Colombia/b2ddcf64-2c8b-ae33-09bb-f3c6619b92d3
82 See Id, at 05.
83 Law 1715 of 2014 through which the integration of non-conventional renewable energies into the National Energy System is regulated, Congress of the Republic of Colombia (May.13, 2014) https://www.funcionpublica.gov.co/eva/gestornormativo/norma.php?i=57353#1
84 See id at 22.
85 Law 1819 of 2016 through which a structural tax reform is adopted, the mechanisms to combat tax evasion and avoidance are strengthened, and other provisions are dictated, Congress of the Republic of Colombia (Dec.29, 2016) http://www.secretariasenado.gov.co/senado/basedoc/ley_1819_2016.html
86 Law 2099 of 2021 through which provisions are dictated for the energy transition, the dynamization of the energy market, the economic reactivation of the country and other provisions are dictated., Congress of the Republic of Colombia (Jul. 10,2021) https://www.funcionpublica.gov.co/eva/gestornormativo/norma.php?i=166326
87 See id, Art.10
88 Id.
89 See Supra note, Article 53.
90 International and Ibero-American Foundation for Administration and Public Policies (fiiapp),Euroclima, https://www.fiiapp.org/en/proyectos_fiiapp/euroclima-2/#:~:text=The%20programme’s%20mission%20is%20to,resilience%2C%20climate%20investment%20and%20biodiversity.
91 Climate Scope, El Salvaor, Bloomberg NEF,https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/sv/
92 Id.
93 Emiliano Bellini,”El Salvador launches auction for PV projects up to 2 MW in size”, PV Magazine, (May 21,2018), https://www.pv-magazine.com/2018/05/31/el-salvador-launches-auction-for-solar-up-to-2-mw/
94 See Supra note.
95 Id.
96 Nunez Zelaya,Anamaria,IDB Backs Program for Universal Access to Electricity in El Salvador, IDB,(Oct.11, 2023), https://www.iadb.org/en/news/idb-backs-program-universal-access-electricity-el-salvador
97 Climate Scope, El Salvaor, Bloomberg NEF,https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/sv/
98 Bloomberg NEF, Climatescope Guatemala (2022), https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/gt/ (last visited Nov. 10, 2023
99 Id.
100 Id.
101 Climate Scope, Panama, BloombergNEF, https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/pa/
102 Id.
103 See Id.
104 Id.
105 Id.
106 Id.
107 Id.
108 Id.
109 Climate Scope Bloomberg NEF, Uruguay, https://www.global-climatescope.org/markets/uy/
110 Uruguay Ministry of Industry, Energy and Mines, Energy Policy 2005-2030 (2005), p.3 available at https://www.eficienciaenergetica.gub.uy/documents/20182/22528/Pol%C3%ADtica+Energ%C3%A9tica+2005-2030/841defd5-0b57-43fc-be56-94342af619a0
111 See Id p.9
112 See Id p.7 
113 FEDERAL MINISTRY REPUBLIC OF AUSTRIA, ECONOMY, “raus aus Öl und Gas” 2023/2024 https://www.oesterreich.gv.at/themen/bauen_wohnen_und_umwelt/energie_sparen/1/raus_aus_oel.html (las visited Sep. 01, 2023
114 International Energy Agency, Energy Policy Review Norway 2022, 13 (2022), https://iea.blob.core.windows.net/assets/de28c6a6-8240-41d9-9082-a5dd65d9f3eb/NORWAY2022.pdf (last visited Nov. 09, 2023
115 Id.
116 Norwegian Ministry of Climate and Environment, Lov om klimamål (klimaloven) (2021), https://lovdata.no/dokument/NLE/lov/2017-06-16-60 (last visited, 2023
117 Id.
118 International Energy Agency, supra note 1, at 10
119 Id.
120 Norwegian Ministry of Climate and Environment, Norway’s Climate Action Plan for 2021–2030, https://www.regjeringen.no/en/dokumenter/meld.-st.-13-20202021/id2827405/?ch=1 (last visited Nov. 09, 2023)
121 Id.
122 Id.
123 Id.
124 Id.
125 Norwegian Ministry of Climate and Environment, supra note 6)
126 World Resource Institute, Spain’s National Strategy to Transition Coal-Dependent Communities (2021), availabl at https://www.wri.org/update/spains-national-strategy-transition-coal-dependent-communities (last visited Aug. 28, 2023
127 Id.))

Energy Transition initiatives:

The National Energy Poverty Strategy 2019-2024

The National Energy Poverty Strategy 2019-2024, endorsed in 2019, serves as a comprehensive tool for the in-depth examination and analysis of the energy poverty concept over the medium and long term. ((International Energy Agency, Spain 2021 Energy Policy Review (2021), 25, available at https://www.iea.org/news/spain-s-extensive-policy-plans-set-to-help-underpin-a-successful-energy-transition-powered-by-renewables-and-efficiency

128 Id.
129 United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Industrial Deep Decarbonization, an initiative of the clean energy ministerial, available at https://www.unido.org/IDDI
130 See Id.
131 Press Release, Ministry of Climate and Entreprise, “Sweden increases its engagement in the Clean Energy Ministerial to accelerate the industry transition”(Nov. 25, 2022), available at https://www.government.se/press-releases/2022/11/sweden-increases-its-engagement-in-the-clean-energy-ministerial-to-accelerate-the-industry-transition/
132 International Energy Agency, “Sweden is a leader in the energy transition, according to latest IEA country review”, available at https://www.iea.org/news/sweden-is-a-leader-in-the-energy-transition-according-to-latest-iea-country-review (April 09, 2019
133 Id.
134 Id.
135 Karin Thalberg, “The Swedish energy transition. A race far from won”, Policy brief, Paris: Jacques Delors Institute, (Sep.9,2022), p.8, available at https://www.institutdelors.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/09/PB_220905_The-Swedish-energy-transition_Thalberg_EN.pdf
136 Id.
137 Id.
138 Swedish Nuclear Society and Analysgruppen, The Swedish energy policy agreement of 10 June 2016 – unofficial English translation, available at https://www.analys.se/publikationer/arkiv/rapporter/english-translation-of-the-swedish-energy-policy-agreement-of-10-june-2016/ (Jun.10, 2016)/
139 Swedish Nuclear Society and Analysgruppen, “The Swedish energy policy agreement of 10 June 2016 – unofficial English translation”, available at https://www.analys.se/publikationer/arkiv/rapporter/english-translation-of-the-swedish-energy-policy-agreement-of-10-june-2016/ (Jun.10, 2016
140 Illinois Senate Bill 2408
141 Illinois General Assembly, Public Act 102-0662, available at: Energy Transition Act, IL SB2408 (2021-2022).
142 Id.
143 State of New Mexico, Senate bill 489 “Energy transition Act”, p.10, available at S.B.19-489, 2019 Reg. Sess. §(3) (B) (New Mexico 2019).
144 Fossil fuel-dependent workers: California Equitable Just Transition Fund, CA AB1966, California Legislature (2021-2022), available at https://legiscan.com/CA/bill/AB1966/2021 (last visited Dec. 08, 2023
145 An Act Establishing a Green New Deal in Connecticut. Raised S.B. No. 354 2020; https://www.cga.ct.gov/2020/TOB/S/PDF/2020SB-00354-R00-SB.PDF
146 An Act to prevent the worst effects of our climate emergency by providing policy pathways to
achieve net zero emissions, The Commonwealth of Massachusetts available at A bill to prevent the worst effects of our climate emergency by providing policy pathways to achieve net zero emissions, 2021 Bill Text MA S.B. 2225.
147 S.B. 0528, (Md. Regular Session 2022) (“Climate Solutions Now Act of 2022”), available at https://mgaleg.maryland.gov/mgawebsite/Legislation/Details/sb0528?ys=2022RS (last visited January 23, 2024
148 H.F. 6, 92d Leg. (Minn. 2021) (“Omnibus commerce, climate, and energy finance bill”), available at https://www.revisor.mn.gov/bills/bill.php?b=House&f=HF6&ssn=1&y=2021 (last visited January 23, 2024
149 “An act to amend the environmental conservation law, the executive law, the labor law and the tax law, in relation to enacting the climate and community investment act” S. B. S7905, 2023-2024 Reg. Sess. (N.Y. 2023-2024) at.29 ,https://legislation.nysenate.gov/pdf/bills/2023/s7905)
150 See Id. at18, 41
151 Energy Transition Act, S.B.19-489, 2019 Reg. Sess. § 16 (F) (3)(N. M. 2019), p.38, available at https://www.nmlegis.gov/Sessions/19%20Regular/bills/senate/SB0489.pdf
152 Government of  Alberta Website, Coal and Electricity Transition Tuition Voucher, available at https://www.alberta.ca/coal-tuition-voucher (last visited Dec. 08, 2023
153 Colorado Department of Labor and Employment,Colorado Just Transition Action Plan, at 8, https://cdle.colorado.gov/sites/cdle/files/documents/Colorado%20Just%20Transition%20Action%20Plan.pdf (Dec.31, 2020)
154 State of New Mexico, Senate bill 489 “Energy Transition Act”, available at SB 489, 2019, §16(F)(3).